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We report on the preliminary cytological observation of fluid in the primo-nodes and vessels on the surfaces of the internal organs of mammals. With some microsurgical procedures, we observed many cells and microcells that spread out of the nodes on the organ surfaces of rats and rabbits. These cells generally showed the following morphologies: (1) round or(More)
OBJECTIVES This study used the basic principle of Oriental medicine, the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle () to investigate the effects of the component of ONGABO, which is composed of Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng), Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae tuber on the viability of HepG2 cells. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was performed to analyze the single dose toxicity of Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture. METHODS All experiments were conducted at the Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study.(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was performed to analyze the single-dose toxicity of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) extracts. METHODS All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR), an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was performed to examine the single-dose toxicity of Samgihwalryeok pharmacopuncture. METHODS Forty six-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of 10 rats each; each group was then sub-divided into two smaller groups, one of five males and the other of five females. Group 1 (G1, control) received 1.0 mL of(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was performed to analyze single dose toxicity and the lethal dose of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture in rats. METHODS All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR), an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Sprague-Dawley rats(More)
BACKGROUND Moxibustion therapy has been used historically for thousands of years and there are many clinical trials supporting its efficacy and effectiveness for various conditions. Moxa smoke has been a major reason for avoiding moxibustion due to its smell and potential risks to the human body. METHODS 10 units of commercial indirect moxa (CIM) from six(More)
In this paper, the five international e-learning issues were discussed. The five international e-learning issues are accessibility for the disabled, intellectual property rights, wireless technology, learning object reusability, and quality assurance. After discussing the five issues, this paper presents a brief description about Korea and an overview of(More)
The need for determining and maintaining quality in the process of designing, developing and delivering online courses is becoming an important issue for universities and institutions worldwide. Teaching online may be a different process to conventional teaching, involving possible changes to pedagogy and teaching practice such as learner-centered education(More)
BACKGROUND Alcoholism, which is a disabling addiction disorder, is a major public health problem worldwide. The present study was designed to determine whether the application of acupuncture at the Shenmen (HT7) point suppresses voluntary alcohol consumption in addicted rats and whether this suppressive effect is potentiated by the administration of(More)