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The too diverse representation of ENSO in a coupled GCM limits one's ability to describe future change of its properties. Several studies pointed to the key role of atmosphere feedbacks in contributing to this diversity. These feedbacks are analyzed here in two simulations of a coupled GCM that differ only by the parame-terization of deep atmospheric(More)
In this study, a Bjerknes stability (BJ) index, proposed by Jin et al. (2006), is adopted to assess the overall stability of El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in state-of-the-art coupled models. The twentieth and twenty-first century simulations of 12 coupled models among the coupled model intercomparison project phase 3 models used in the(More)
Radiation therapy has been widely used for treating human cancers. However, cancer cells develop radioresistant phenotypes that decrease the efficacy of radiotherapy. Ionizing radiation (IR) induces the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important role in apoptotic cell death. Therefore, radiation therapy combined with a sensitizer, which(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stresses, which induce the reactive oxygen species (ROS), can cause airway inflammation. The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) protect cells against the effects of ROS. GSTP1 polymorphism may have some effect on allergic rhinitis. Therefore, we have compared the effects of GSTP1 polymorphisms on the perennial allergic rhinitis in(More)
OBJECTIVE LL-37 is one of the antimicrobial peptides and the only member of the cathelicidin family identified so far in humans. We attempted to find a correlation between LL-37 peptide and inflammation of the nasal mucosa. MATERIAL AND METHODS Nasal mucosa specimens were obtained from 15 chronic infective rhinitis patients and 6 normal controls.(More)
OBJECTIVES Mitomycin C (MMC) is an antibiotic-antineoplastic agent that decreases fibroblast proliferation and scar formation. We aimed to evaluate the effect of MMC on the size of antrostomy and the mucociliary clearance rate. METHODS We selected 20 patients with chronic sinusitis on both sides. After middle meatal antrostomy, we selected one side, and a(More)
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (nasal ENKTL) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity of lymphoid tumors with variable size and differentiation of tumor cells. Nasal ENKTL is related to infection of the tumor cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and virtually all cases contain monoclonal episomal EBV DNA and detectable EBV encoded small(More)
BACKGROUND Topical corticosteroid spray is widely used after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) to reduce the recurrence of polyposis. However, it has not always shown satisfactory results in clinical practice. We compared the effects of topical spray and high-dose topical steroid gauze packing on the prevention of recurrent nasal polyps after ESS. METHODS We(More)