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We provide the first direct evidence that highly purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) exhibit strong antimicrobial activity. By using a pristine SWNT with a narrow diameter distribution, we demonstrate that cell membrane damage resulting from direct contact with SWNT aggregates is the likely mechanism leading to bacterial cell death. This finding(More)
This study evaluates the cytotoxicity of four carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs)--single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), aqueous phase C60 nanoparticles (aq-nC60), and colloidal graphite--in gram negative and gram positive bacteria. The potential impacts of CBNs on microorganisms in natural and engineered aquatic(More)
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been previously observed to be strong antimicrobial agents, and SWNT coatings can significantly reduce biofilm formation. However, the SWNT antimicrobial mechanism is not fully understood. Previous studies on SWNT cytotoxicity have concluded that membrane stress (i.e., direct SWNT-bacteria contact resulting in(More)
We provide the first evidence that the size (diameter) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a key factor governing their antibacterial effects and that the likely main CNT-cytotoxicity mechanism is cell membrane damage by direct contact with CNTs. Experiments with well-characterized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)(More)
Rational modification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to isolate their specific physical and chemical properties will inform a mechanistic understanding of observed CNT toxicity in bacterial systems. The present study compares the toxicity of commercially obtained multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) before and after physicochemical modification via common(More)
We developed a method for preparing live bacterial cell probes for atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a bioinspired polydopamine wet adhesive. Microscopic examinations with bacterial and yeast cells indicated that cells were successfully glued to the end of the AFM cantilevers and remained viable for the duration of the force measurements. Interaction(More)
Shear is used to control fouling in membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems. However, shear also influences the physicochemical and biological properties of MBR biomass. The current study examines the relationship between the level of shear and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production in MBRs. Two identical MBRs were operated in parallel where the(More)
We examined the resistance to bacterial adhesion of a novel polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ultrafiltration membrane incorporating the amphiphilic comb copolymer additive, polyacrylonitrile-graft-polyethylene oxide (PAN-g-PEO). The adhesion of bacteria (E. coli K12) and the reversibility of adhered bacteria were tested with the novel membrane, and the behavior was(More)
This study elucidates the mechanisms by which extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) impact permeate water flux and salt rejection during biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. RO fouling experiments were conducted with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, EPS extracted from PAO1 biofilms, and dead PAO1 cells fixed in formaldehyde. While a biofouling layer(More)