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The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is a major player in cell cycle control and it is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Whereas induction of p21 predominantly leads to cell cycle arrest, repression of p21 may have a variety of outcomes depending on the context. In this review, we concentrate on transcriptional repression of p21(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chemical or genetic inhibition of proteasome activity induces new proteasome synthesis promoted by the transcription factor RPN4. This ensures that proteasome activity is matched to demand. This transcriptional feedback loop is conserved in mammals, but its molecular basis is not understood. Here, we report that nuclear factor(More)
The oncogenic transcription factor forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is overexpressed in a number of different carcinomas, whereas its expression is turned off in terminally differentiated cells. For this reason, FoxM1 is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in cancer treatment. As a first step toward realizing this goal, in this study, using a(More)
Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is generally viewed as anti-apoptotic and oncogenic, leading to a quest for its inhibitors. However, recent evidence suggests that in some situations NF-kappaB may promote apoptosis. Depending on the specific cell type and the stimulus involved, NF-kappaB activation may lead to either anti- or pro-apoptotic response. Both(More)
p21 is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases capable of arresting cell cycle progression. p21 is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level by several transcription factors, including p53. Previously, we reported that certain members of the E2F family of transcription factors may activate p21 transcription via a p53-independent mechanism. To(More)
Proteasome inhibition elicits an evolutionarily conserved response wherein proteasome subunit mRNAs are upregulated, resulting in recovery (i.e., 'bounce-back') of proteasome activity. We previously demonstrated that the transcription factor Nrf1/NFE2L1 mediates this homeostatic response in mammalian cells. We show here that Nrf1 is initially translocated(More)
We developed a pipeline to identify novel genes regulated by the steroid hormone-dependent transcription factor, estrogen receptor, through a systematic analysis of upstream regions of all human and mouse genes. We built a data base of putative promoter regions for 23,077 human and 19,984 mouse transcripts from National Center for Biotechnology Information(More)
Tumor suppressor p53 is often activated in response to DNA damage or other forms of stress, leading to either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Stress-induced kinases phosphorylate p53 thereby enhancing its stability, leading to an increase in transactivation of its target genes. Several different protein kinases phosphorylate p53 on multiple amino acid(More)
Hepatitis viruses are the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Since currently available treatment options against these viruses are limited, there is a need for development of alternative therapies. In this minireview, we concentrate on three hepatitis viruses--hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis delta(More)