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Several cell surface molecules including signalling receptors are internalized by clathrin-independent endocytosis. How this process is initiated, how cargo proteins are sorted and membranes are bent remains unknown. Here, we found that a carbohydrate-binding protein, galectin-3 (Gal3), triggered the glycosphingolipid (GSL)-dependent biogenesis of a(More)
We employ three-photon microscopy to produce a high-resolution map of serotonin autofluorescence in a rat midbrain section (covering more than half of the brain), to quantitatively characterize serotonin distribution and release in different areas of a live brain slice. The map consists of a tiling of approximately 160 contiguous optical images (covering an(More)
Some monoaminergic neurons can release neurotransmitters by exocytosis from their cell bodies. The amount of monoamine released by somatic exocytosis can be comparable to that released by synaptic exocytosis, though neither the underlying mechanisms nor the functional significance of somatic exocytosis are well understood. A detailed examination of these(More)
The plasma membrane of cells can be viewed as a highly dynamic, regulated, heterogeneous environment with multiple functions. It constitutes the boundary of the cell, encapsulating all its components. Proteins interact with the membrane in many ways to accommodate essential processes, such as membrane trafficking, membrane protrusions, cytokinesis,(More)
Functional regulation of proteins is central to living organisms. Here it is shown that a nonfunctional conformational state of a polypeptide can be kinetically trapped in a lipid bilayer environment. This state is a metastable structure that is stable for weeks just above the phase transition temperature of the lipid. When the samples are incubated for(More)
During endocytosis, energy is invested to narrow the necks of cargo-containing plasma membrane invaginations to radii at which the opposing segments spontaneously coalesce, thereby leading to the detachment by scission of endocytic uptake carriers. In the clathrin pathway, dynamin uses mechanical energy from GTP hydrolysis to this effect, assisted by the(More)
In Escherichia coli, a contractile ring (Z-ring) is formed at midcell before cytokinesis. This ring consists primarily of FtsZ, a tubulin-like GTPase, that assembles into protofilaments similar to those in microtubules but different in their suprastructures. The Min proteins MinC, MinD, and MinE are determinants of Z-ring positioning in E. coli. MinD and(More)
UNLABELLED Bacterial cell division initiates with the formation of a ring-like structure at the cell center composed of the tubulin homolog FtsZ (the Z-ring), which acts as a scaffold for the assembly of the cell division complex, the divisome. Previous studies have suggested that the divisome is initially composed of FtsZ polymers stabilized by membrane(More)