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To enable strong attachment forces between pad and substrata, a high proximity between contacting surfaces is required. One of the mechanisms, which can provide an intimate contact of solids, is a high flexibility of both materials. It has been previously presumed that setae of hairy attachment pads of insects are composed of flexible cuticle, and are able(More)
Friction and adhesion forces of the ventral surface of tarsi and metatarsi were measured in the bird spider Aphonopelma seemanni (Theraphosidae) and the hunting spider Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae). Adhesion measurements revealed no detectable attractive forces when the ventral surfaces of the leg segments were loaded and unloaded against the flat smooth(More)
The blowflies Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria are among the first colonizers of human remains in Europe. Laboratory development studies with immature stages of these blowflies for postmortem interval (PMI) calculations are generally performed on different media such as processed food substrates or liver of various animals. The question arises(More)
The muscular attachment sites (MAS) of blowfly larvae can be visualised as “dots” by removing and staining the cuticle. Each segment bears several rows of MAS. The silhouettes of a subset of those rows in the second, third, and fourth segments were previously shown to be specific for four species of L3 blowfly larvae. In this investigation, the MAS patterns(More)
In order to understand the attachment mechanism of flies, it is important to clarify the question of how the adhesive pad (pulvillus) builds and breaks the contact with the substrate. By using normal and high-speed video recordings, the present study revealed that pulvilli are positioned on the surface in a particular way. The pulvilli are apparently loaded(More)
Design of attachment devices in insects varies enormously in relation to different functional loads. Many systems, located on different parts of the body, involve surfaces with particular frictional properties. Such systems evolved to attach parts of the body to each other, or to attach an insect to the substratum by providing fast and reversible(More)
First results of a new method for species determination in third instar larvae of saprophagous blowflies are introduced. Cuticular attachment sites of a limited number of transversal muscles are visualized for light microscopic analysis. After removing the muscles and staining the cuticle, the attachment sites become visible as laterally symmetrical(More)
A description of the muscles and nerves involved in feeding of larval Calliphora vicina is given as a prerequisite to establish fictive feeding patterns recorded from the isolated central nervous system. Feeding Diptera larvae show a repetitive sequence of pro- and retraction of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton (CPS), elevation and depression of the mouth(More)
To establish the existence of a central pattern generator for feeding in the larval central nervous system of two Drosophila species, the gross anatomy of feeding related muscles and their innervation is described, the motor units of the muscles identified and rhythmic motor output recorded from the isolated CNS. The cibarial dilator muscles that mediate(More)
An unsuspected attachment mechanism may help these huge spiders to avoid catastrophic falls. Spiders spin silk from specialized structures known as abdominal spinnerets--a defining feature of the creatures--and this is deployed to capture prey, protect themselves, reproduce and disperse. Here we show that zebra tarantulas (Aphonopelma seemanni) from Costa(More)