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The Marine Microbial Eukaryote Transcriptome Sequencing Project (MMETSP): Illuminating the Functional Diversity of Eukaryotic Life in the Oceans through Transcriptome Sequencing Patrick J. Keeling*, Fabien Burki, Heather M. Wilcox, Bassem Allam, Eric E. Allen, Linda A. AmaralZettler, E. Virginia Armbrust, John M. Archibald, Arvind K. Bharti, Callum J. Bell,(More)
The ability to predict gene content is highly desirable for characterization of not-yet sequenced genomes like those of dinoflagellates. Using data from completely sequenced and annotated genomes from phylogenetically diverse lineages, we investigated the relationship between gene content and genome size using regression analyses. Distinct relationships(More)
The phylum of dinoflagellates is characterized by many unusual and interesting genomic and physiological features, the imprint of which, in its immense genome, remains elusive. Much novel understanding has been achieved in the last decade on various aspects of dinoflagellate biology, but most remarkably about the structure, expression pattern and epigenetic(More)
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become a gold standard for the quantification of nucleic acids and microorganism abundances, in which plasmid DNA carrying the target genes are most commonly used as the standard. A recent study showed that supercoiled circular confirmation of DNA appeared to suppress PCR amplification. However, to what extent to which(More)
Through the analysis of hundreds of full-length cDNAs from fifteen species representing all major orders of dinoflagellates, we demonstrate that nuclear-encoded mRNAs in all species, from ancestral to derived lineages, are trans-spliced with the addition of the 22-nt conserved spliced leader (SL), DCCGUAGCCAUUUUGGCUCAAG (D = U, A, or G), to the 5' end. SL(More)
The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus is a toxicologically important genus responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, the principal cause of non-bacterial illness associated with fish consumption. The genus currently contains species exhibiting either globular or anterior-posteriorly compressed morphologies with marked differences in cell shape(More)
Spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing is a common mRNA processing mechanism in dinoflagellates, in which a 22-nt sequence is transferred from the 5'-end of a small noncoding RNA, the SL RNA, to the 5'-end of mRNA molecules. Although the SL RNA gene was shown initially to be organized as tandem repeats with transcripts of 50-60 nt, shorter than most of their(More)
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a co-factor of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon, is essential for DNA replication and repair. Understanding the structure and expression characteristics of this gene in dinoflagellates would enable us to gain insights into how the cell cycle in these enigmatic eukaryotes is regulated and whether this gene can be a(More)
Many outstanding questions about dinoflagellate evolution can potentially be resolved by establishing a robust phylogeny. To do this, we generated a data set of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cob) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) from a broad range of dinoflagellates. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian methods were used to infer(More)
DNA barcoding is a diagnostic technique for species identification using a short, standardized DNA. An effective DNA barcoding marker would be very helpful for unraveling the poorly understood species diversity of dinoflagellates in the natural environment. In this study, the potential utility for DNA barcoding of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1)(More)