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Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons mediate much of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, respectively, in the vertebrate nervous system. The process by which developing neurons select between these two cell fates is poorly understood. Here we show that the homeobox genes Tlx3 and Tlx1 determine excitatory over inhibitory cell fates in the mouse(More)
Brainstem visceral sensory and (nor)adrenergic neurons play crucial roles in modulating cardiovascular and respiratory functions. The origins and formation of these neurons are poorly understood. Here we show that these two classes of neurons are derived from Mash1-positive precursor cells, and can be prospectively identified by combinatorial expression of(More)
Trigeminal nuclei and the dorsal spinal cord are first-order relay stations for processing somatic sensory information such as touch, pain, and temperature. The origins and development of these neurons are poorly understood. Here we show that relay somatic sensory neurons and D2/D4 dorsal interneurons likely derive from Mash1-positive neural precursors, and(More)
Most neurons in vertebrates make a developmental choice between two principal neurotransmitter phenotypes (glutamatergic versus GABAergic). Here we show that the homeobox gene Lbx1 determines a GABAergic cell fate in the dorsal spinal cord at early embryonic stages. In Lbx1-/- mice, the presumptive GABAergic neurons are transformed into glutamatergic cells.(More)
Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is caused by an immune response to self-thyroid antigens and has a significant genetic component. Antisense RNA transcripts have been implicated in gene regulation. Here we have identified a novel zinc-finger gene, designated ZFAT (zinc-finger gene in AITD susceptibility region), as one of the susceptibility genes in(More)
Point mutations that activate the Ki-ras proto-oncogene are presented in about 50 percent of human colorectal tumors. To study the functional significance of these mutations, the activated Ki-ras genes in two human colon carcinoma cell lines, DLD-1 and HCT 116, were disrupted by homologous recombination. Compared with parental cells, cells disrupted at the(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis is a common autoimmune disease with a complex genetic etiology. Here we identify a SNP in the promoter region of FCRL3, a member of the Fc receptor-like family, that is associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (odds ratio = 2.15, P = 0.00000085). This polymorphism alters the binding affinity of nuclear factor-kappaB and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Solute carrier family 15 (SLC15) A4 is a proton-coupled histidine and oligopeptide cotransporter expressed by the immune and nervous systems and associated with disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases and systemic lupus erythematosus. High levels of SLC15A4 transcripts were observed in human antigen-presenting cells, including(More)
Mdm2 acts as a major regulator of the tumor suppressor p53 by targeting its destruction. Here, we show that the mdm2 gene is also regulated by the Ras-driven Raf/MEK/MAP kinase pathway, in a p53-independent manner. Mdm2 induced by activated Raf degrades p53 in the absence of the Mdm2 inhibitor p19ARF. This regulatory pathway accounts for the observation(More)
Tissue factor (TF) is the primary cellular initiator of blood coagulation and a modulator of angiogenesis and metastasis in cancer. Indeed, systemic hypercoagulability in patients with cancer and TF overexpression by cancer cells are both closely associated with tumor progression, but their causes have been elusive. We now report that in human colorectal(More)