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Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons mediate much of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, respectively, in the vertebrate nervous system. The process by which developing neurons select between these two cell fates is poorly understood. Here we show that the homeobox genes Tlx3 and Tlx1 determine excitatory over inhibitory cell fates in the mouse(More)
Brainstem visceral sensory and (nor)adrenergic neurons play crucial roles in modulating cardiovascular and respiratory functions. The origins and formation of these neurons are poorly understood. Here we show that these two classes of neurons are derived from Mash1-positive precursor cells, and can be prospectively identified by combinatorial expression of(More)
Trigeminal nuclei and the dorsal spinal cord are first-order relay stations for processing somatic sensory information such as touch, pain, and temperature. The origins and development of these neurons are poorly understood. Here we show that relay somatic sensory neurons and D2/D4 dorsal interneurons likely derive from Mash1-positive neural precursors, and(More)
Most neurons in vertebrates make a developmental choice between two principal neurotransmitter phenotypes (glutamatergic versus GABAergic). Here we show that the homeobox gene Lbx1 determines a GABAergic cell fate in the dorsal spinal cord at early embryonic stages. In Lbx1-/- mice, the presumptive GABAergic neurons are transformed into glutamatergic cells.(More)
Point mutations that activate the Ki-ras proto-oncogene are presented in about 50 percent of human colorectal tumors. To study the functional significance of these mutations, the activated Ki-ras genes in two human colon carcinoma cell lines, DLD-1 and HCT 116, were disrupted by homologous recombination. Compared with parental cells, cells disrupted at the(More)
Tissue factor (TF) is the primary cellular initiator of blood coagulation and a modulator of angiogenesis and metastasis in cancer. Indeed, systemic hypercoagulability in patients with cancer and TF overexpression by cancer cells are both closely associated with tumor progression, but their causes have been elusive. We now report that in human colorectal(More)
Our previous studies using microsatellite markers near or in the TSH receptor (TSHR) gene revealed significant association between autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in Japanese patients and TSHR microsatellite alleles. In the present study, we performed a case-control analysis of AITD using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spaced 3-50 kb apart(More)
The growth of solid tumors in vivo beyond 1-2 mm in diameter requires induction and maintenance of an angiogenic response. This can occur through the release of various angiogenic growth factors from tumor cells. One such factor is vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF), a secreted and specific mitogen for vascular(More)
Mdm2 acts as a major regulator of the tumor suppressor p53 by targeting its destruction. Here, we show that the mdm2 gene is also regulated by the Ras-driven Raf/MEK/MAP kinase pathway, in a p53-independent manner. Mdm2 induced by activated Raf degrades p53 in the absence of the Mdm2 inhibitor p19ARF. This regulatory pathway accounts for the observation(More)
BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer is a common disease that involves genetic alterations, such as inactivation of tumour suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes. Among them are RAS and BRAF mutations, which rarely coexist in the same tumour. Individual members of the Rho (Ras homology) GTPases contribute with distinct roles in tumour cell morphology,(More)