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In pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), plant cell surface receptors sense potential microbial pathogens by recognizing elicitors called PAMPs. Although diverse PAMPs trigger PTI through distinct receptors, the resulting intracellular responses overlap extensively. Despite this, a common component(s) linking signal(More)
Jasmonates (JAs) trigger an important transcriptional reprogramming of plant cells to modulate both basal development and stress responses. In spite of the importance of transcriptional regulation, only one transcription factor (TF), the Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix MYC2, has been described so far as a direct target of JAZ repressors. By(More)
Plant innate immunity relies on a set of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that respond to ligands known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). To overcome such immunity, phytopathogenic bacteria deliver virulence molecules called effector proteins into the plant cell that collectively promote pathogenesis. The vast majority of PRRs(More)
Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae is dependent on a type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of virulence effector proteins into the host cytoplasm, and the production of a number of toxins such as coronatine (COR), which is a mimic of the plant hormone jasmonate-isoleuce (JA-Ile). Inside the plant cell, effectors target host molecules to(More)
Plants and animals use innate immunity as a first defense against pathogens, a costly yet necessary tradeoff between growth and immunity. In Arabidopsis, the regulatory leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) BAK1 combines with the LRR-RLKs FLS2 and EFR in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and the LRR-RLK BRI1(More)
An extraordinary progress has been made over the last two decades on understanding the components and mechanisms governing plant innate immunity. After detection of a pathogen, effective plant resistance depends on the activation of a complex signaling network integrated by small signaling molecules and hormonal pathways, and the balance of these hormone(More)
Plant pathogenic bacteria secrete effector proteins that attack the host signaling machinery to suppress immunity. Effectors can be recognized by hosts leading to immunity. One such effector is AvrPtoB of Pseudomonas syringae, which degrades host protein kinases, such as tomato Fen, through an E3 ligase domain. Pto kinase, which is highly related to Fen,(More)
The major virulence strategy for plant pathogenic bacteria is deployment of effector molecules within the host cytoplasm. Each bacterial strain possesses a set of 20-30 effectors which have overlapping activities, are functionally interchangeable, and diverge in composition between strains. Effectors target host molecules to suppress immunity. Two main(More)
(+)-7-iso-Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) regulates developmental and stress responses in plants. Its perception involves the formation of a ternary complex with the F-box COI1 and a member of the JAZ family of co-repressors and leads to JAZ degradation. Coronatine (COR) is a bacterial phytotoxin that functionally mimics JA-Ile and interacts with the(More)
Cytoplasmic recognition of pathogen virulence effectors by plant NB-LRR proteins leads to strong induction of defence responses termed effector triggered immunity (ETI). In tomato, a protein complex containing the NB-LRR protein Prf and the protein kinase Pto confers recognition of the Pseudomonas syringae effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB. Although structurally(More)