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PURPOSE The neuroanatomy of the female lower urogenital tract remains controversial. We defined the topographical anatomy and differential immunohistochemical characteristics of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris, the cavernous nerve and the nerves innervating the female urethral sphincter complex. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 16 normal female human(More)
PURPOSE The mechanism of human erection requires the coordination of an intact neuronal system that includes the cavernous, perineal, and dorsal nerves of the penis. We defined the communication of these 3 nerves that travel under the pubic arch using specific neuronal immunohistochemical staining and 3-dimensional reconstruction imaging technique. (More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the topography of the perineal nerves from their pudendal origin to their course into the male genitalia, with specific attention on the course of the perineal nerve along the ventral penis, including branches into bulbospongiosus muscle and corpus spongiosum. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study comprised 18 normal human fetal penile(More)
Vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) is presented in approximately %1 of children and is associated with an increased risk of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Despite its prevalence and morbidity, many aspects of VUR diagnosis and treatment are controversial. We objectively assessed the published data; the data base for many current diagnoses and treatment(More)
The neurovascular bundle of the prostate and cavernosal nerves have been used to describe the same structure ever since the publication of the first studies on the neuroanatomy of the lower urogenital tract of men, studies that were prompted by postoperative complications arising from radical prostatectomy. In urological surgery every effort is made to(More)
INTRODUCTION Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a well-known and successful treatment modality. In addition, it can be used in premature infants. ESWL is used to treat kidney and ureter stones in children. However, although it is a preferred noninvasive treatment in that setting, there is debate about its long-term effects on growing kidneys in(More)
INTRODUCTION Despite the wide spread use of modern portable ultrasound equipment to measure the postvoid residual urine, its accuracy and reliability has been questioned. We investigated the accuracy of postvoid residual urine measurement by portable abdominal ultrasound equipment in end-stage renal disease patients who are under either hemodialysis or(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the scrotal nerve origin and distribution with respect to surrounding structures in male human fetuses, by using neuronal-specific markers and three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques, as the developmental neuroanatomy of the human scrotum has not been studied in detail and an explicit description of nerve derivation and distribution in(More)
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