Water probably flowed across ancient Mars, but whether it ever exists as a liquid on the surface today remains debatable. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5 to 5 meters), relatively dark markings on steep (25° to 40°) slopes; repeat images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment show them to appear and… (More)
Introduction: Theoretical results [1-7] and observational evidence [8-11] indicate that high-latitude terrain on Mars contains large quantities pore-filling ice buried beneath a desiccated regolith. Although the models themselves differ in detail, they all show a sharp transition from regions where ice is currently stable to those where it is not. The… (More)
New impact craters at five sites in the martian mid-latitudes excavated material from depths of decimeters that has a brightness and color indicative of water ice. Near-infrared spectra of the largest example confirm this composition, and repeated imaging showed fading over several months, as expected for sublimating ice. Thermal models of one site show… (More)
 The Mars Phoenix Lander was equipped with a 2.4 m Robotic Arm (RA) with an Icy Soil Acquisition Device capable of excavating trenches in soil deposits, grooming hard icy soil surfaces with a scraper blade, and acquiring icy soil samples using a rasp tool. A camera capable of imaging the scoop interior and a thermal and electrical conductivity probe were… (More)
 The Opportunity Rover has been exploring Meridiani Planum; concurrently, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has been collecting orbital hyperspectral data. Herein, both surface and orbital data are used to characterize surface properties at the Opportunity traverse region around Victoria crater. Results agree with previous… (More)
Introduction: A critical component to understanding the volatile inventory and climate of Mars is to understand the exchange of CO 2 and H 2 O between the atmosphere and surface. The ability of the seasonal polar caps to trap up to 25% of the atmosphere during the winter months reinforces the important role these condensates play in meteorological processes… (More)
Introduction: Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for the martian surface obtained from orbit by the MRO-CRISM and OMEGA instruments are interpreted as having spectral signatures of H 2 O/OH-bearing phases, including smectites and other phyl-losilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO 2 phases [e.g., 1-4]. Interpretations of martian spectral signatures are… (More)
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