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Genetic subtyping has been a powerful tool in tracking the global spread of HIV. To determine the HIV-1 subtypes circulating in eastern and northeastern regions of India blood samples were collected from female sex workers in Calcutta and intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Manipur. Fifty-four samples from Calcutta and 25 samples from Manipur were analyzed for(More)
Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection might transmit viremic units into the public blood supply if only hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing is used for donor screening. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection among the HBsAg negative/antiHBc positive donations from a highly HIV prevalent region of India. A total of 729(More)
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the predominant aetiological agents during seasonal epidemics, and thus rapid and sensitive molecular tests for screening for such agents and timely identification of(More)
The majority of HIV-1 transmission in Manipur, one of the northeastern states of India, is through the sharing of needles and syringes among the injecting drug users (IDUs). A total of 28 HIV seropositive samples were used to determine the HIV-1 subtypes with respect to both gag and envelope genes. The specific regions within gag and envelope genes were(More)
Herpes genitalis, caused by HSV-2, is an incurable genital ulcerative disease transmitted by sexual intercourse. The virus establishes life-long latency in sacral root ganglia and reported to have synergistic relationship with HIV-1 transmission. Till date no effective vaccine is available, while the existing therapy frequently yielded drug resistance,(More)
BACKGROUND Worldwide, frequent emergence of lamivudine (3TC)-resistant HBV mutants has been reported in HIV-HBV-coinfected patients during long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) that contains 3TC as the sole anti-HBV drug. Three major patterns of mutations in HBV polymerase gene, namely single (rtM204V), double (rtL180M+rtM204V) and triple(More)
HIV-1 strains have diversified extensively through mutation and recombination since their initial transmission to human beings many decades ago in central Africa. The high error rate of HIV reverse transcriptase combined with the estimated in vivo HIV-1 replication rate of ten billion new virions each day leads to extraordinary genetic diversity of HIV.(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is the sole etiologic agent of Japanese Encephalitis (JE); a neurotropic killer disease which is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis worldwide with prime public health concern. JE was first reported in the state of West Bengal, India in 1973. Since then it is being reported(More)
Influenza surveillance was implemented in Kolkata, eastern India in 2005 to identify the circulating subtypes and characterize their genetic diversity. Throat and nasal swabs were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI). Of 2844 ILI cases identified at two referral hospitals during October 2005-September 2009, 309 (10.86%) were positive(More)
A recent occurrence of HIV-1 seropositivity among a group of injecting drug users (IDUs) in Darjeeling, a hilly district in northern West Bengal, revealed overall 11.8% HIV seroprevalence. Our study based on env (C2-V3), gag (p24-p7), and tat (exon-1) genomic regions of HIV-1 detected among this population showed that Darjeeling IDU sequences belonged to(More)