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We demonstrate vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors (GB-HETs) with a variety of structures and material parameters. Our GB-HETs exhibit a current saturation with a high current on-off ratio (>10(5)), which results from both the vertical transport of hot electrons across the ultrathin graphene base and the filtering of hot electrons through a(More)
Capecitabine and gemcitabine are used in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors including pancreatic and biliary tract carcinomas. The authors evaluated survival, response, and toxicity associated with using a combination of capecitabine and gemcitabine to treat patients with unresectable or metastatic gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBC). Eligible patients(More)
BACKGROUND Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER), is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association(More)
BACKGROUND The Swanson's ABC model is powerful to infer hidden relationships buried in biological literature. However, the model is inadequate to infer relations with context information. In addition, the model generates a very large amount of candidates from biological text, and it is a semi-automatic, labor-intensive technique requiring human expert's(More)
BACKGROUND Alterations of a genome can lead to changes in protein functions. Through these genetic mutations, a protein can lose its native function (loss-of-function, LoF), or it can confer a new function (gain-of-function, GoF). However, when a mutation occurs, it is difficult to determine whether it will result in a LoF or a GoF. Therefore, in this(More)
Network-based methods using molecular interaction networks integrated with gene expression profiles have been proposed to solve problems, which arose from smaller number of samples compared with the large number of predictors. However, previous network-based methods, which have focused only on expression levels of proteins, nodes in the network through the(More)
BACKGROUND Drug repositioning is the process of finding new indications for existing drugs. Its importance has been dramatically increasing recently due to the enormous increase in new drug discovery cost. However, most of the previous molecular-centered drug repositioning work is not able to reflect the end-point physiological activities of drugs because(More)
PURPOSE This study focused on implementation of a prognostic scoring index based on clinico-laboratory parameters measured routinely on admission in metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Records from 403 patients of metastatic disease were analyzed retrospectively. Continuous variables were dichotomized according to the normal range(More)
Microsatellite instability (MSI) refers to the hypermutability of the cancer genome due to impaired DNA mismatch repair. Although MSI has been studied for decades, the large amount of sequencing data now available allows us to examine the molecular fingerprints of MSI in greater detail. Here, we analyze ~8000 exome and ~1000 whole-genome pairs across 23(More)
Computer-based virtual human model is believed to be the promising solution for drug response identification. Literature mining is competitive method to extract those biological rules for human model simulation, since existing public databases provide only limited amount of information applicable for the simulation. Here we propose the method for mining(More)