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The high emetic response (HER) strain and low emetic response (LER) strain of musk shrews (Suncus murinus) markedly differ in the emetic reflex in adults. However, there have been no studies on young musk shrews. We gave a shaking stimulus to young musk shrews aged 10 days or more that were obtained by mating within each strain and observed emetic(More)
To clarify the anatomical location of medullary neurons associated with vomiting, the musk shrew (Suncus murinus), a small animal used as a model for emesis, was exposed to various emetic stimuli and patterns of neuronal excitation were investigated by Fos immunohistochemistry. In motion experiments, musk shrews were shaken for 30 min on a tabletop shaker(More)
We have examined the ultrastructure of the myenteric ganglion of the subdiaphragmatic esophagus and determined whether the ganglion neurons receive direct projections from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) using wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) as an anterograde tracer. The neurons (22.2 microm x 13.3 microm) of(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is an isoform of membrane water channel aquaporins. It is most abundant in the brain, and is believed to be expressed by astrocytes and ependymal cells. We have reported previously that rat pituitary glands express some aquaporin subtypes, including AQP4, but the precise distribution of AQP4 in the pituitary gland is not known. The(More)
We have examined whether calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) neurons in the glossopharyngeal ganglia innervate the soft palate, the root of tongue, and the pharynx of the rat. Immunohistochemical observations revealed that numerous CGRP-ir neurons are located in the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion located ventrolateral to the medulla(More)
The cornea is sensitive to nociceptive stimuli and receives dense sensory innervations from the trigeminal ganglion, which also innervates the upper eyelid. We investigated the morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of the trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the cornea and upper eyelid. We injected the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG)(More)
The central subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii (ceNTS) receives afferent projections from the esophageal wall and projects to the nucleus ambiguus, thus serving as a relay nucleus for peristalsis of the esophagus. Here we examine the synaptic organization of the ceNTS, and its esophageal afferents by using transganglionic anterograde transport of(More)
The visual cortex in the rat is matured physiologically by postnatal day 30, but the visual system retains the potential to be reorganized until postnatal day 45. Therefore, we defined the period from postnatal days 28-45 as the 'late critical phase'. To examine whether monocular deprivation during the late critical phase gives rise to neuronal apoptosis in(More)
We subcutaneously injected 0.5 mg/kg veratrine into the musk shrew (Suncus murinus), observed the presence or absence, latency, and the incidence of vomiting in each animal for 90 min, and selected animals that frequently vomited (FV group) and those that did not vomit (NV group). Subsequently, animal brains were removed, and the induction of c-fos protein(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS In mammalian spermatogenesis, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is one of the major Sertoli cell-derived factors which regulates the maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) through GDNF family receptor α1 (GFRα1). It remains unclear as to when, where and how GDNF molecules(More)