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Recently, remote user authentication schemes using smart cards has been researched to provide user privacy because of increasing interest and demands. Previously, provided authentication schemes were only concerned about providing user privacy against outside attackers, but the scheme, which guarantees user privacy against both a remote server and outside(More)
The world is changing and we are moving towards the day when everything will be network accessible, named 'Internet of Things (IoT)'. The growing popularity of IoT leads various services such as healthcare, connected car, smart education and smart home services. Among these services, smart home becomes commercialized most rapidly. We developed the Smart(More)
Lately, remote user authentication schemes using smart cards have been researched to provide user privacy. Previously provided schemes based on smart cards were only concerned about providing mutual authentication with key exchange, but the schemes preserving user anonymity have been recently demanded because the user privacy is an important issue in many(More)
Acknowledgments We have received valuable comments from Hila Using a large hand-collected sample of all blockholders (ownership ≥ 5%) of S&P 1500 firms for the years 2002–2009, we test whether firms' financial reporting choices relate to individual shareholders. We document significant individual blockholder effects on financial reporting quality(More)
We examine market reactions to the 1999 rule changes approved by the SEC for the NYSE and NASDAQ to require all listed firms to have a fully-independent audit committee with at least three directors within 18 months of passage. On the benefit side, we find no evidence that the market perceived the new regulation to dampen earnings management or fraudulent(More)
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