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The drive for higher performance in optical fiber systems has renewed interest in coherent detection. We review detection methods, including noncoherent, differentially coherent, and coherent detection, as well as a hybrid method. We compare modulation methods encoding information in various degrees of freedom (DOF). Polarization-multiplexed(More)
A 47-year-old male receiving anticoagulant therapy for thrombophlebitis in the left leg for several years presented with mild left hemiparesis and ipsilateral hypesthesia. The cause of the thrombophlebitis was still unknown. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed subacute thrombosis of both the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and a cortical vein in the right(More)
A 67-year-old female with a history of hypertension and cerebral infarction presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (Hunt and Kosnik grade 4). Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a clot dominantly on the right (Fisher's classification Group 4). Cerebral angiography showed funnel-shaped widenings at the origins of the bilateral posterior(More)
A 59-year-old male presented with a left organized subdural hematoma. The hematoma appeared as a homogeneous low density area on brain computed tomography and as hyperintense and isointense area on both fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed a crescent(More)
A 59-year-old diabetic male presented with transient motor aphasia and monoparesis of the right upper limb. Brain CT scan showed a low density area in the left subdural space with a mild midline shift. Magnetic resonance (MR) T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imagings revealed homogenous hyperintensity with a hypointense web-like(More)
Five cases of traumatic subdural hematomas in the subacute stage (from 7 to 20 days after head injury) were treated in one male and four females, aged from 63 to 82 years, with evacuation via craniotomy in three and aspiration via burr hole surgery in two. All hematomas were evaluated by T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and(More)
The diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of chronic subdural hematoma and the correlation between hematoma liquidity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were investigated in 26 consecutive patients, 16 males and 10 females aged 42 to 92 years (mean +/- SD 73.3 +/- 13.1 years), with 31 chronic subdural hematomas. The(More)
We have confirmed that the temperature-coeficient of the average dispersion of a ZDF transmission line is 100 times smaller than that of a conventional DSF. Temperature-independent 80GbiUs OTDM transmission using the 168km ZDF transmission line has been successfully demonstrated. No penalty was observed for the ZDF transmission line over a temperature range(More)
A 61-year-old female with a past history of gastric cancer presented with altered mental status, a few seizures, and low-grade fever. Lumbar puncture revealed elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevated protein level, remarkably decreased glucose level, and presence of cryptococcal antigen. Cryptococcus neoformans was(More)
An 80-year-old male without abnormal past medical history presented with coma, general seizures, and fever subsequent to abnormal behavior. The pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) elevated(13.5-20.5 cm H2O), and CSF examination revealed pleocytosis with predominant mononuclear cells(80-879/mm3) and elevated protein level(32-130 mg/dl). DNAs of herpes(More)