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PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two doses of gefitinib (Iressa [ZD1839]; AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE), a novel epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with pretreated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter phase(More)
Lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating mutations responds favorably to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib. However, 25% to 30% of patients with EGFR-activating mutations show intrinsic resistance, and the responders invariably acquire resistance to gefitinib. Here, we showed that hepatocyte growth factor(More)
The development of a relevant mouse model for the establishment and growth of brain metastases is essential for study of the biology and therapy of brain metastasis. Injection of human tumour cells into the internal carotid artery of syngeneic or nude mice produces experimental metastases in specific regions of the brain; these are not due to patterns of(More)
PURPOSE Lung cancers with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating mutations show good clinical response to gefitinib and erlotinib, selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) to EGFR, but these tumors invariably develop drug resistance. Host stromal cells have been found to have a considerable effect on the behavior of cancer cells. Little is(More)
Although the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) erlotinib and gefitinib have shown dramatic effects against EGFR mutant lung cancer, patients become resistant by various mechanisms, including gatekeeper EGFR-T790M mutation, Met amplification, and HGF overexpression, thereafter relapsing. Thus, it is urgent to develop novel agents to overcome(More)
High mobility group (HMGB)1/amphoterin is a multifunctional cytokine involved in invasion and metastasis of cancer and in inflammation. To investigate HMGB1/amphoterin effects on macrophages, U937 human monocytic leukemia cells and rat peritoneal and human alveolar macrophages were examined. U937 cells expressed low levels of an HMGB1/amphoterin receptor,(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is commonly overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its tyrosine kinase phosphorylation is thought to be an ideal target in the treatment of patients with NSCLC. In the present study, we examined surgically obtained specimens from a series of 36 NSCLC patients for expression of EGFR, phosphorylated(More)
PURPOSE Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy, which has a poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 1 year. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported to be an ideal therapeutic target, and a multitargeted antifolate, pemetrexed, has been clinically used for the treatment of MPM. EXPERIMENTAL(More)
OBJECTIVE Various forms of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have been applied in the treatment of gastric cancer. The present study was designed to assess the survival benefits of NAC with UFT (tegafur plus uracil) for gastric cancer, as a randomized consent trial as described by Zelen. PATIENTS AND METHODS The present study included 295 patients with(More)
Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is a serious problem in the management of EGFR mutant lung cancer. We recently reported that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induces resistance to EGFR-TKIs by activating the Met/PI3K pathway. HGF is also known to induce angiogenesis in cooperation with vascular(More)