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AcrB and its homologues are the principal multidrug transporters in Gram-negative bacteria and are important in antibiotic drug tolerance. AcrB is a homotrimer that acts as a tripartite complex with the outer membrane channel TolC and the membrane fusion protein AcrA. Minocycline and doxorubicin have been shown to bind to the phenylalanine cluster region of(More)
The multidrug efflux transporter AcrB and its homologues are important in the multidrug resistance of Gram-negative pathogens. However, despite efforts to develop efflux inhibitors, clinically useful inhibitors are not available at present. Pyridopyrimidine derivatives are AcrB- and MexB-specific inhibitors that do not inhibit MexY; MexB and MexY are(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of the study was (1) to detect candidate genes involved in lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancers and (2) to investigate whether we can estimate and predict occurrence of lymph node metastasis by analyzing artificial neural networks (ANNs) using these gene subsets. METHODS Twenty-eight primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas(More)
We generated the homozygous transgenic mice with expression of the active form of TGF-beta1 by the glucagon promoter (homozygous NOD-TGF-beta1). The homozygous NOD-TGF-beta1 showed severe diabetes in 84.6%, impaired glucose tolerance, and low serum insulin levels. The final size of endocrine and whole pancreas decreased, respectively, to 6 and 34%, compared(More)
cDNA microarrays. The expression of LAGE-1 was induced by 5 ؅-aza-2 ؅-deoxycytidine (5Aza-dC) and tricho-statin A (TSA) in esophageal cancer cell lines, which did not express LAGE-1. In HEECs, 5Aza-dC induced LAGE-1 expression, but TSA did not. Conclusions: LAGE-1 expression was detected in esophageal cancer by cDNA RDA. LAGE-1 might have the potential to(More)
OBJECTIVES In Gram-negative bacteria, drug susceptibility is associated with multidrug efflux systems and an outer membrane (OM) barrier. Previous studies revealed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has 10 functional drug efflux pumps. Among them, AcrB is a major factor to maintain the intrinsic drug resistance in this organism. The(More)
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