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Clostridial neurotoxins inhibit neurotransmitter release by selective and specific intracellular proteolysis of synaptobrevin/VAMP, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) or syntaxin. Here we show that in binary reactions synaptobrevin binds weakly to both SNAP-25 and syntaxin, and SNAP-25 binds to syntaxin. In the presence of all three(More)
The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum produces several related neurotoxins that block exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals and that are responsible for the clinical manifestations of botulism. Recently, it was reported that botulinum neurotoxin type B as well as tetanus toxin act as zinc-dependent proteases that specifically cleave(More)
Neurotransmitter release is potently blocked by a group of structurally related toxin proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) and tetanus toxin (TeTx) are zinc-dependent proteases that specifically cleave synaptobrevin (VAMP), a membrane protein of synaptic vesicles. Here we report that inhibition of transmitter(More)
AcrB and its homologues are the principal multidrug transporters in Gram-negative bacteria and are important in antibiotic drug tolerance. AcrB is a homotrimer that acts as a tripartite complex with the outer membrane channel TolC and the membrane fusion protein AcrA. Minocycline and doxorubicin have been shown to bind to the phenylalanine cluster region of(More)
Tetanus toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic nerve endings. The mature toxin is composed of a heavy and a light chain that are linked via a disulfide bridge. After entry of tetanus toxin into the cytoplasm, the released light chain causes block of neurotransmitter release. Recent evidence suggests that(More)
The interaction of the presynaptic membrane proteins SNAP-25 and syntaxin with the synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin (VAMP) plays a key role in the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Clostridial neurotoxins, which proteolyze these polypeptides, are potent inhibitors of neurotransmission. The cytoplasmic domains of the three membrane proteins(More)
Clostridial neurotoxins, tetanus toxin (TeTx) and the seven related but serologically distinct botulinal neurotoxins (BoNT/A to BoNT/G), are potent inhibitors of synaptic vesicle exocytosis in nerve endings. Recently it was reported that the light chains of clostridial neurotoxins act as zinc-dependent metalloproteases which specifically cleave synaptic(More)
Tetanus toxin (TeTx) and the various forms of botulinal neurotoxins (BoNT/A to BoNT/G) potently inhibit neurotransmission by means of their L chains which selectively proteolyze synaptic proteins such as synaptobrevin (TeTx, BoNT/B, BoNT/F), SNAP-25 (BoNT/A), and syntaxin (BoNT/C1). Here we show that BoNT/D cleaves rat synaptobrevin 1 and 2 in toxified(More)
The multidrug efflux transporter AcrB and its homologues are important in the multidrug resistance of Gram-negative pathogens. However, despite efforts to develop efflux inhibitors, clinically useful inhibitors are not available at present. Pyridopyrimidine derivatives are AcrB- and MexB-specific inhibitors that do not inhibit MexY; MexB and MexY are(More)
Laminar organization is a fundamental cytoarchitecture in mammalian CNS and a striking feature of the neocortex. ER81, a transcription factor, has recently been utilized as a marker of cells in the layer 5 of the neocortex. We further pursued the distribution of ER81 to investigate the identity of the ER81-expressing cells in the brain. Er81 transcript was(More)