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In eukaryotic cells, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have an important involvement at various points in the cell cycle. At the onset of S phase, active CDK is essential for chromosomal DNA replication, although its precise role is unknown. In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the replication protein Sld2 (ref. 2) is an essential CDK substrate, but(More)
Cdt1 is essential for loading Mcm2-7 proteins into prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs) during replication licensing and has been found in organisms as diverse as fission yeast and humans. We have identified a homologue of Cdt1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is required for pre-RC assembly. We show that, like Mcm2-7p, Cdt1p accumulates in the nucleus(More)
BACKGROUND Chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotes initiates from multiple origins of replication, and because of this multiplicity, activation of replication origins is likely to be highly coordinated; origins fire at characteristic times, with some origins firing on average earlier (early-firing origins) and others later (late-firing origins) in the S(More)
One of the most powerful techniques for attributing functions to genes in uni- and multicellular organisms is comprehensive analysis of mutant traits. In this study, systematic and quantitative analyses of mutant traits are achieved in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by investigating morphological phenotypes. Analysis of fluorescent microscopic(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) limit the activation of DNA replication origins to once per cell cycle by preventing the assembly of pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) during S, G2 and M phases of the cell cycle in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CDKs inhibit each pre-RC component (ORC, Cdc6, Cdt1/Mcm2-7) by different mechanisms. We show here(More)
Although genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer cells, the mechanisms by which genomic instability is generated and selected for during oncogenesis remain obscure. In most human cancers, the pathway leading to the activation of the G1 cyclins is deregulated. Using budding yeast as a model, we show that overexpression of the G1 cyclin Cln2(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate the progression of the cell cycle in eukaryotes. One of the major roles of CDK is to promote chromosomal DNA replication. However, how CDKs promote DNA replication has been a long-standing question, because all the essential CDK substrates in DNA replication have not been identified yet. Recently Sld2 and Sld3 were(More)
In a previous paper, a hypothesis for protein folding was proposed in which the native structure is formed by a three-step mechanism: (A) formation of ordered backbone structures by short-range interactions, (B) formation of small contact regions by medium-range interactions, and (C) association of the small contact regions into the native structure by(More)
Many replication proteins assemble on the pre-RC-formed replication origins and constitute the pre-initiation complex (pre-IC). This complex formation facilitates the conversion of Mcm2-7 in the pre-RC to an active DNA helicase, the Cdc45-Mcm-GINS (CMG) complex. Two protein kinases, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), work to(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in the regulation of cell cycle progression in eukaryotes. The onset of S phase, the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication, is a major cell cycle event that is regulated by CDKs. Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication is highly regulated and occurs as a two-step reaction. The first reaction, known as(More)