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In the injured central nervous system (CNS), reactive astrocytes form a glial scar and are considered to be detrimental for axonal regeneration, but their function remains elusive. Here we show that reactive astrocytes have a crucial role in wound healing and functional recovery by using mice with a selective deletion of the protein signal transducer and(More)
Although recent reports have described multipotent, self-renewing, neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs), the NCSCs in various adult rodent tissues have not been well characterized or compared. Here we identified NCSCs in the bone marrow (BM), dorsal root ganglia, and whisker pad and prospectively isolated them from adult transgenic mice encoding neural(More)
Excessive accumulation of smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) has a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been assumed that SMCs derived from the outer medial layer migrate, proliferate and synthesize extracellular matrix components on the luminal side of the vessel. Although much effort has been devoted to targeting migration and proliferation(More)
Ewing sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor (EWS) is associated with the most unfavorable prognosis of all primary musculoskeletal tumors. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) affect the development of EWS. TAMs were isolated from mouse xenografts using CD11b magnetic beads and examined for(More)
Naïve T cells proliferate and differentiate into memory cells after antigenic stimulation or in a lymphopenic environment. We showed here transient increases in memory phenotype CD8+ T cell numbers in the lymphopenic environment of spleens of very young mice. The magnitude of the increase correlated with Bcl-6 expression in the T cells. Bcl-6 controlled the(More)
After immunization with T cell-dependent antigens, the high-affinity B cells selected in germinal centers differentiate into memory B cells or long-lived antibody-forming cells. However, a role for germinal centers in development of these B lineage cells is still controversial. We show here that Bcl6-deficient B cells, which cannot develop germinal centers,(More)
In recent years, various studies have been conducted toward the goal of achieving regeneration of the central nervous system using neural stem cells. However, various complex factors are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell differentiation, and many unresolved questions remain. It has been reported that after spinal cord injury, the intrinsic(More)
The migratory response of astrocytes is essential for restricting inflammation and preserving tissue function after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we observed stimulation of in vitro astrocyte migration by the new potent glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor Ro3303544 and investigated the effect of(More)
Antigen receptor variable-(diversity)-joining (V(D)J) recombination at the locus encoding the T cell antigen receptor-beta (Tcrb) is ordered, with D(beta)-to-J(beta) assembly preceding V(beta)-to-DJ(beta) joining. The molecular mechanism underlying this 'preferred' order of rearrangement remains unclear. Here we show that the D(beta) 23-base pair(More)
OBJECT The use of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cells has been reported to improve functional recovery in cases of central nervous system injuries such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury (SCI). The authors investigated the effects of hemopoietic stem cells that were derived from HUCB and transplanted into the injured spinal cords(More)