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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
The effect of recombinant human interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta) on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mossy fiber-CA3 pathway of mouse hippocampal slice preparations was investigated. IL-1 beta significantly inhibited LTP in concentrations as low as 2.9 pM (50 pg/ml). This effect of IL-1 beta was blocked by concurrent application of 100 nM Lys-D-Pro-Thr, a(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
The nucleotide sequences of the 27,939-bp-long upstream and 9,448-bp-long downstream regions of the carAaAaBaBbCAc(ORF7)Ad genes of carbazole-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10 were determined. Thirty-two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, and the car gene cluster was consequently revealed to consist of 10 genes (carAaAaBaBbCAcAdDFE) encoding(More)
We have cloned five human immunoglobulin gamma genes from a fetal liver gene library. Four of them encode the known human immunoglobulin gamma chains gamma 1, gamma 2, gamma 3 and gamma 4. A fifth gamma gene seems to be a pseudogene. Nucleotide sequence determination demonstrates that the gamma 3 gene contains four separate hinge exons. Comparison of these(More)
We have determined a 180 kb contiguous sequence in the replication origin region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. Open reading frames (ORF) in this region were unambiguously identified from the determined sequence, using criteria characteristic for the B. subtilis gene structure, i.e., starting with an ATG, GTG or TTG codon preceded by sequences(More)
A thin myocardial layer adjacent to the epicardium (epicardial rim) often survives after transmural myocardial infarction. Regional myocardial blood flow (Qm) at this rim may be high enough to maintain myocardial viability during coronary occlusion. To test this hypothesis, we measured Qm in 12 anesthetized dogs during left anterior descending coronary(More)
There are at least three immunoglobulin epsilon genes (C epsilon 1, C epsilon 2, and C epsilon 3) in the human genome. The nucleotide sequences of the expressed epsilon gene (C epsilon 1) and one (C epsilon 3) of the two epsilon pseudogenes were compared. The results show that the C epsilon 3 gene lacks the three intervening sequences entirely and has a(More)
DFN3, an X chromosome-linked nonsyndromic mixed deafness, is caused by mutations in the BRN-4 gene, which encodes a POU transcription factor. Brn-4-deficient mice were created and found to exhibit profound deafness. No gross morphological changes were observed in the conductive ossicles or cochlea, although there was a dramatic reduction in endocochlear(More)