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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
The activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is central to innate and adaptive immunity. All TLRs use the adaptor MyD88 for signalling, but the mechanisms underlying the MyD88-mediated gene induction programme are as yet not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor IRF-5 is generally involved downstream of the TLR-MyD88(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a downstream effector of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and a central modulator of cell proliferation in malignant gliomas. Therefore, the targeting of mTOR signaling is considered a promising therapy for malignant gliomas. However, the mechanisms underlying the(More)
The sphingolipid ceramide has been recognized as an important second messenger implicated in regulating diverse signaling pathways especially for apoptosis. Very little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms underlying nonapoptotic cell death induced by ceramide. In the present study, we first demonstrate that ceramide induces nonapoptotic cell(More)
Recent clinical data shows that arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) causes remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma without severe side effects. Laboratory data suggest that As(2)O(3) induces apoptosis or cell differentiation of hematopoietic or solid tumor cells. To date, there has been no study on the effects of As(2)O(3) on(More)
Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) has shown considerable efficacy in treating hematological malignancies with induction of programmed cell death (PCD) type I, apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of As(2)O(3) on solid tumors are poorly defined. Previously, we reported that As(2)O(3) induced autophagic cell death (PCD type II) but(More)
Autophagy is a process in which subcellular membranes undergo dynamic morphological changes that lead to the degradation of cellular proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. This process is an important cellular response to stress or starvation. Many studies have shed light on the importance of autophagy in cancer, but it is still unclear whether autophagy(More)
Nutrients and bioenergetics are prerequisites for proliferation and survival of mammalian cells. We present evidence that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1), is phosphorylated at Thr 198 downstream of the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome protein-AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1-AMPK) energy-sensing pathway, thereby increasing p27 stability and directly(More)
Autophagy is a novel response of cancer cells to ionizing radiation (IR) or chemotherapy, but its significance or mechanism remains largely elusive. Autophagy is characterized with the prominent formation of autophagic vacuoles in the cytoplasm. It is a protein degradation system that involves autophagic/lysosomal compartment. The process begins with(More)
OBJECT Temozolomide (TMZ) is a DNA alkylating agent currently used as adjuvant treatment for anaplastic astrocytomas. Its use in managing glioblastoma multiforme has been halted because of the lack of therapeutic effects due to cell resistance. Note that O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltranferase (AGT) is a DNA repair enzyme that limits the efficacy of TMZ. In(More)