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Neurons are highly polarized cells composed of dendrites, cell bodies, and long axons. Because of the lack of protein synthesis machinery in axons, materials required in axons and synapses have to be transported down the axons after synthesis in the cell body. Fast anterograde transport conveys different kinds of membranous organelles such as mitochondria(More)
This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and(More)
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Kinesin is known as a representative cytoskeletal motor protein that is engaged in cell division and axonal transport. In addition to the mutant assay, recent advances using the PCR cloning technique have elucidated the existence of many kinds of kinesin-related proteins in yeast, Drosophila, and mice. We previously cloned five different members of kinesin(More)
Only a small proportion of the mouse genome is transcribed into mature messenger RNA transcripts. There is an international collaborative effort to identify all full-length mRNA transcripts from the mouse, and to ensure that each is represented in a physical collection of clones. Here we report the manual annotation of 60,770 full-length mouse complementary(More)
The effects of anadamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol and related compounds on the specific binding of a radiolabeled cannabinoid receptor ligand,[3H]CP55940, to synaptosomal membranes were examined. Anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, reduced the specific binding of [3H]CP55940 to synaptosomal membranes in a dose-dependent manner: the Ki(More)
The levels of N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), an endogenous cannabinoid-receptor ligand, and a relevant molecule, N-arachidonoylphosphatidylethanolamine (N-arachidonoylPtdEtn), in rat brain were investigated using a newly developed sensitive analytical method. We found that rat brain contains small but significant amounts of these two types of(More)
We have developed an efficient in vitro class switching system using a subclone (CH12F3) of the IgM+ CH12.LX lymphoma cell line. CH12F3 cells switched from surface IgM+ cells to surface IgA+ cells at a high frequency (50%) after 72 h stimulation with IL-4, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and CD40L. No other class isotype-producing cells were detected,(More)
According to the amyloid hypothesis for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, beta-amyloid peptide (betaA) directly affects neurons, leading to neurodegeneration and tau phosphorylation. In rat hippocampal culture, betaA exposure activates tau protein kinase I/glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (TPKI/GSK-3beta), which phosphorylates tau protein into Alzheimer(More)
The effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 2-arachidonoylglycerol on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in NG108-15 cells were examined in detail. We found that delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces a rapid, modest increase in [Ca2+]i. The response was detectable with 3 nM delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. We also found that very low(More)