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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, plays a critical role in adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. It has been implicated that PPAR-gamma functions as a regulator of cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we examined whether(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and safety of unilateral deep brain stimulation on the posterior subthalamic white matter, including the zona incerta (ZI) and the prelemniscal radiation (PRL), for tremor-dominant parkinsonian patients and to determine the exact location of electrodes that were most effective. METHODS Eight parkinsonian patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB) are present in most patients with MS in Western countries; however, in Japanese MS patients, the OCB-positive rate is not as high. A relationship between immunogenetic backgrounds, namely, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR2 and DR4 positivity, and OCB production in MS patients from Hokkaido, the northernmost island of(More)
Proximal tremors are often refractory to nucleus ventrointermedius thalami thalamotomy. Subthalamotomy has been suggested to be effective for treatment of tremor, although this procedure is associated with considerable adverse effects, and has rarely been considered a suitable treatment modality. The authors demonstrate the efficacy and safety of(More)
A decrease in intracellular glutathione content may be related to the primary event in Parkinson's disease, so increasing the glutathione level may have a therapeutic benefit. The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1, 25-(OH)(2)D(3)] has been recently reported to enhance the intracellular glutathione concentration in the(More)
Glycation, one of the post-translational modifications of proteins, is a nonenzymatic reaction initiated by the primary addition of a sugar aldehyde or ketone to the amino groups of proteins. In the early stage of glycation, the synthesis of intermediates leading to the formation of Amadori compounds occurs. In the late stage, advanced glycation end(More)
BACKGROUND We previously discovered spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) in a single Japanese family with an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and intermittent axial myoclonus. The latter manifestation is selectively observed in patients with early onset. We mapped the locus to chromosome 19q13.4-qter, but(More)
INTRODUCTION The involvement of glycation in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was recently indicated. We previously reported the existence of an Amadori product, 1-hexitol-lysine (1-HL), which is formed in the early glycation reaction, in axonal spheroids of the anterior horn(More)
The level of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), a newly discovered cytokine of chemokine family, was determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 18 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and from control patients with other neurological disorders by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of MIP-1 alpha in CSF was(More)
Midkine (MK) is the product of a retinoic acid responsive gene and is a member of a new family of heparin-binding growth factors. Neurotrophic effects of MK were examined using cultured spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons derived from fetal mouse. MK, which was added to the culture medium at concentrations of 1-100 ng/ml, promoted survival of(More)