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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, plays a critical role in adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. It has been implicated that PPAR-gamma functions as a regulator of cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we examined whether(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and safety of unilateral deep brain stimulation on the posterior subthalamic white matter, including the zona incerta (ZI) and the prelemniscal radiation (PRL), for tremor-dominant parkinsonian patients and to determine the exact location of electrodes that were most effective. METHODS Eight parkinsonian patients with(More)
A decrease in intracellular glutathione content may be related to the primary event in Parkinson's disease, so increasing the glutathione level may have a therapeutic benefit. The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1, 25-(OH)(2)D(3)] has been recently reported to enhance the intracellular glutathione concentration in the(More)
Proximal tremors are often refractory to nucleus ventrointermedius thalami thalamotomy. Subthalamotomy has been suggested to be effective for treatment of tremor, although this procedure is associated with considerable adverse effects, and has rarely been considered a suitable treatment modality. The authors demonstrate the efficacy and safety of(More)
BACKGROUND We previously discovered spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) in a single Japanese family with an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and intermittent axial myoclonus. The latter manifestation is selectively observed in patients with early onset. We mapped the locus to chromosome 19q13.4-qter, but(More)
BACKGROUND Oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB) are present in most patients with MS in Western countries; however, in Japanese MS patients, the OCB-positive rate is not as high. A relationship between immunogenetic backgrounds, namely, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR2 and DR4 positivity, and OCB production in MS patients from Hokkaido, the northernmost island of(More)
INTRODUCTION The involvement of glycation in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was recently indicated. We previously reported the existence of an Amadori product, 1-hexitol-lysine (1-HL), which is formed in the early glycation reaction, in axonal spheroids of the anterior horn(More)
The level of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), a newly discovered cytokine of chemokine family, was determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 18 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and from control patients with other neurological disorders by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of MIP-1 alpha in CSF was(More)
Midkine (MK) is the product of a retinoic acid responsive gene and is a member of a new family of heparin-binding growth factors. Neurotrophic effects of MK were examined using cultured spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons derived from fetal mouse. MK, which was added to the culture medium at concentrations of 1-100 ng/ml, promoted survival of(More)
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the biologically active form of vitamin D, exerts an immunosuppressive effect and can completely prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts most of its actions only after it has bound to its specific nuclear receptors. To investigate the possible role of vitamin D receptor gene (VDRG)(More)