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Molecular biology has resurrected C. Darwin and T.H. Huxley's question about the origin of humans, but the precise branching pattern and dating remain controversial. To settle this issue, a large amount of sequence information is required. We determined mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences for five hominoids; pygmy and common chimpanzees, gorilla, orangutan,(More)
Macula densa cells are unique renal biosensor cells that detect changes in luminal NaCl concentration ([NaCl](L)) and transmit signals to the mesangial cellafferent arteriolar complex. They are the critical link between renal salt and water excretion and glomerular hemodynamics, thus playing a key role in regulation of body fluid volume. Since(More)
Here we report DNA sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene segments (1,005 base pairs per species) for the extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) and the extant Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), the Western Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the hyrax (Procavia capensis). These molecular data(More)
 To examine the possibility that ATP modulates insulin secretion by an autocrine mechanism, we measured the local concentration of released ATP at the surface of a single pancreatic β cell by a new biosensor technique, using PC12 cells expressing ligand-gated cation channels, P2X2 receptors. Upon application of glucose or glibenclamide, a series of current(More)
We analyzed the 896 base-pair (bp) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences for seven gibbons, representative of three out of four subgenera. The result from our molecular analysis is consistent with previous studies as to the monophyly of subgenusHylobates species, yet the relationship among subgenera remains slightly ambiguous. A striking result of the(More)
Expression of the Wilms' tumor gene WT1 in de novo lung cancer was examined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Overexpression of the WT1 gene was detected by RT-PCR in 54/56 (96%) de novo non-small cell lung cancers examined and confirmed by detection of WT1 protein with an anti-WT1 antibody. Overexpression of the WT1 gene was(More)
The effects of 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-methyl-6-(5-piperidinopentyloxy) pyrimidine hydrochloride (NS-7), a novel neuroprotective compound, on the voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSC) were examined in the rat brain and cardiac myocytes. NS-7 inhibited [3H]batrachotoxinin A 20α-benzoate (BTX) binding (neurotoxin receptor site 2) in brain membranes with a Ki(More)
The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 consists of 10 exons and encodes a zinc finger transcription factor. There are four major WT1 isoforms resulting from alternative splicing at two sites, exon 5 (17AA) and exon 9 (KTS). All major WT1 isoforms are overexpressed in leukemia and solid tumors and play oncogenic roles such as inhibition of apoptosis, and promotion of(More)
Tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 facilitate the fusion between gametes, myoblasts, or virus-infected cells. Here, we investigated the role of these tetraspanins in the fusion of mononuclear phagocytes. Expression of CD9 and CD81 and their complex formation with integrins were up-regulated when blood monocytes were cultured under normal conditions. Under fusogenic(More)
Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted (137)Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of (137)Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of (137)Cs and the concentration ratios of (137)Cs to (133)Cs(More)