The mechanism of slow muscarinic excitation in bullfrog sympathetic ganglia was studied using a single-electrode voltage clamp technique. The membrane current induced by muscarine (0.01-30 microM: Imus) consisted of a voltage-dependent component (dIM) induced by the inhibition of K+-current (known as IM), a voltage-independent cation-selective current (ID),… (More)
Numerous studies have demonstrated that early adverse experiences are associated with the development of susceptibility to stress later in life. Although it is known that early experience of adversity, such as neonatal isolation, maternal separation, and low maternal care, enhances the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenalaxis in rodents, the… (More)
OBJECTIVE Zolpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, is very effective and widely prescribed in clinical practice for the treatment of insomnia and is thought to have few adverse effects. However, zolpidem-induced adverse effects have begun to be reported in the literature, but few systemic descriptions of the adverse effects (especially for psychotic… (More)
Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysregulation in patients with schizophrenia using electrophysiological methods, such as electrodermal measures and heart rate analysis. Several theories have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia and its autonomic function. Recently, the measurement of salivary alpha-amylase has… (More)
Early adverse experiences are thought to contribute to the development of stress vulnerability, and to increase the onset of stress-related psychiatric disorders in stressful environments in adulthood. One plausible molecular mechanism of stress vulnerability is the modulation of neurotrophic factor signal transduction in the hippocampus by early adversity.… (More)
The Computer Animation Festival issued a special call for short animations of our robot mascot character. Students and professionals around the world submitted many creative, entertaining animations. The largest group of submissions came from students at the Digital Hollywood school in Tokyo.
The influence of imipramine and lithium on the expression of calcineurin (CaN) and its serine/threonine phosphatase activity in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus was examined. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that single or repeated (14 day) administration of imipramine did not affect the levels of CaN A (catalytic subunit) mRNA in rat brain.… (More)
In bullfrog sympathetic ganglion cells, muscarine produced an inward current (Imus) through the activation of a subtype (M1) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) by suppressing an outward M-current (IM), and/or activating cation-selective current (ID; see below). The former was induced with a potency (Kd = 0.5 microM) higher than the latter (Kd = 5… (More)