Seiichi Oyadomari

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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis and folding of secretory proteins. Perturbations of ER homeostasis affect protein folding and cause ER stress. ER can sense the stress and respond to it through translational attenuation, upregulation of the genes for ER chaperones and related proteins, and degradation of unfolded proteins by a(More)
Unfolded and malfolded client proteins impose a stress on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which contributes to cell death in pathophysiological conditions. The transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) is activated by ER stress, and CHOP deletion protects against its lethal consequences. We find that CHOP directly activates GADD34, which promotes(More)
Overload of pancreatic beta cells in conditions such as hyperglycemia, obesity, and long-term treatment with sulfonylureas leads to beta cell exhaustion and type 2 diabetes. Because beta cell mass declines under these conditions, apparently as a result of apoptosis, we speculated that overload kills beta cells as a result of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)(More)
Obesity has become more prevalent in most developed countries over the past few decades, and is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for several common types of cancer. As the worldwide obesity epidemic has shown no signs of abating, better understanding of the mechanisms underlying obesity-associated cancer is urgently needed. Although several(More)
Apoptotic cell death in pancreatic beta-cells is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Signals from death receptors and DNA damage have been widely accepted as being triggers of apoptosis in beta-cells. Recent studies indicated that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can sense and transduce apoptotic signals. Various genetic and environmental stresses(More)
Brain ischemia induces apoptosis in neuronal cells, but the mechanism is not well understood. When wild-type mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) for 15 min, apoptosis-associated morphological changes and appearance of TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the striatum and in the hippocampus at 48 h after occlusion.(More)
Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production in cytokine-activated beta cells has been implicated in beta cell disruption in type 1 diabetes. beta cells are very vulnerable to NO-induced apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unclear. Low concentrations of NO that lead to apoptosis apparently do not cause severe DNA damage in mouse MIN6(More)
We reported that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway involving CHOP, a member of the C/EBP transcription factor family, plays a key role in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated apoptosis of macrophages and pancreatic beta cells. We also showed that the cytosolic chaperone pair of hsp70 and dj1 (hsp40/hdj-1) or dj2 (HSDJ/hdj-2) prevents NO-mediated apoptosis(More)
Excess nitric oxide (NO) induces apoptosis in some cell types including macrophages; however, the cascade of NO-mediated apoptosis is not fully understood. We investigated the initial steps of NO-mediated apoptosis in mouse macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. When cells were treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma),(More)
The molecular mechanisms linking the stress of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) to glucose intolerance in obese animals are poorly understood. In this study, enforced expression of a translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha)-specific phosphatase, GADD34, was used to selectively compromise signaling in the(More)