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The use of membrane-permeable peptides as carrier vectors for the intracellular delivery of various proteins and macromolecules for modifying cellular function is well documented. Arginine-rich peptides, including those derived from human immunodeficiency virus 1 Tat protein, are among the representative classes of these vectors. The internalization(More)
Basic peptides such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat-(48-60) and Drosophila Antennapedia-(43-58) have been reported to have a membrane permeability and a carrier function for intracellular protein delivery. We have shown that not only Tat-(48-60) but many arginine-rich peptides, including HIV-1 Rev-(34-50) and octaarginine (Arg(8)),(More)
Neuronal cells injured by ischemia and reperfusion to a certain extent are committed to death in necrotic or apoptotic form. Necrosis is induced by gross ATP depletion or 'energy crisis' of the cell, whereas apoptosis is induced by a mechanism still to be defined in detail. Here, we investigated this mechanism by focusing on a DNA damage-sensor,(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1; EC 2.4.2.30), also termed as poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, is a key enzyme in the recognition and repair of damaged DNA. Several conditions (e.g., ischemia-reperfusion or chemical-induced injury) have been shown to overactivate PARP-1, causing neurodegeneration and necrotic or apoptotic cell death from NAD+ and ATP(More)
Polymorphism of CYP2D6 and its relationship with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been controversial. The distribution of the B-mutation of CYP2D6, a mutation that results in the absence of a functional protein, differs by ethnicity and accounts for less than 1% of the 'poor metabolizer' phenotype in Asians. Thus, a meta-analysis was(More)
OBJECTIVE Cardioplegic arrest remains the method of choice for myocardial protection in cardiac surgery. Poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibitor has been suggested to attenuate the ischemia-reperfusion injury in myocardial infarction by preventing energy depletion associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the efficacy of a(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear enzyme involved in the detection of DNA strand termini. Extensive cellular damage can overactivate PARP-1, which rapidly depletes the cellular stores of NAD+ and ATP, resulting in necrotic cell death. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether 6(5H)-phenanthridinone, a potent inhibitor of(More)
Overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in response to oxidative stress has been shown to contribute to necrotic cell death by consuming NAD+ and ATP. In the present study, PARP-1 overactivation was determined by identifying the distribution and accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) following intraperitoneal administration of a hepatotoxic dose(More)
Non-amyloid beta (Abeta) component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloid (NAC) coexists with Abeta protein in senile plaques. After exposure to NAC fibrils, cortical neurons of rat brain primary culture became apoptotic, while astrocytes were activated with extension of their processes. NAC fibrils decreased the activity of reducing(More)
Artemisinin, a natural product isolated from Artemisia annua, contains an endoperoxide group that can be activated by intracellular iron to generate toxic radical species. Cancer cells over-express transferrin receptors (TfR) for iron uptake while most normal cells express nearly undetectable levels of TfR. We prepared a series of artemisinin-tagged(More)