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We evaluated the bioavailability and plasma antioxidative activity after administration of procyanidin B2 [epicatechin-(4beta-8)-epicatechin] in rats. After procyanidin B2 administration, procyanidin B2 is absorbed and excreted in urine, and a portion of the PB2 is degraded to (-)-epicatechin and to the metabolized conjugated and/or methylated(More)
(-)-Epicatechin is a major polyphenol component of cocoa powder. The absorption and urinary excretion of (-)-epicatechin following administration of different levels of either cocoa powder (150, 750, and 1500 mg/kg) or (-)-epicatechin (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats. Both the sum of plasma (-)-epicatechin metabolites at 1 h postadministration(More)
(-)-epicatechin is one of the most potent antioxidants present in the human diet. Particularly high levels are found in black tea, apples, and chocolate. High intake of catechins has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. There have been several reports concerning the bioavailability of catechins, however, the chemical structure of(More)
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is contained in various Lamiaceae herbs used commonly as culinary herbs. Although RA has various potent physiological actions, little is known on its bioavailability. We therefore investigated the absorption and metabolism of orally administered RA in rats. After being deprived of food for 12 h, RA (50 mg/kg body weight) or deionized(More)
We evaluated the levels of (-)-epicatechin (EC) and its metabolites in plasma and urine after intake of chocolate or cocoa by male volunteers. EC metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and LC/MS after glucuronidase and/or sulfatase treatment. The maximum levels of total EC metabolites in plasma were reached 2 hours after either chocolate or cocoa intake.(More)
The aims of the present study were to determine the level of (-)-epicatechin (EC) and its metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of cocoa powder and to evaluate the protective effect of cocoa powder in terms of suppressing the oxidation of plasma components. Rats were orally administered 1 g cocoa powder/kg body weight, containing 7.80 mg EC,(More)
BACKGROUND Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenolic substance contained in many Lamiaceae herbs such as Perilla frutescens. Previous studies have shown RA has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. However, little is known on the absorption, metabolism, degradation and excretion of RA. AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of this study in healthy humans(More)
BACKGROUND Cocoa powder is rich in polyphenols such as catechins and procyanidins and has been shown in various models to inhibit LDL oxidation and atherogenesis. OBJECTIVE We examined whether long-term intake of cocoa powder alters plasma lipid profiles in normocholesterolemic and mildly hypercholesterolemic human subjects. DESIGN Twenty-five subjects(More)
We compared levels of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and their metabolites in rat plasma and urine after oral administration. Rats were divided into four groups and given (+)-catechin (CA group), (-)-epicatechin (EC group), a mixture of the two (MIX group) or deionized water. Blood samples were collected before administration and at designated time(More)
Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic phytochemical, suppresses allergic immunoglobulin responses and inflammation caused by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in mice. However, few placebo-controlled clinical trials have examined the efficacy and safety of polyphenolic phytochemicals for treatment of allergic(More)