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This paper introduced a novel railway system, Automatic Train Protection and Block (ATPB) briefly, which is proposed to improve the efficiency of existing regional train lines with low cost in Japan. The biggest superiority of ATPB system is a great use of universal and mature technologies, such as GPS and regular mobile telephone networks, so that there is(More)
This paper presents a formal specification of an Automatic Train Protection and Block (ATPB) model for local line railway system in Japan proposed by the author [12], and validates the model by internal consistency proving and systematic testing. The system consists of two parts, the on-board subsystem and ground subsystem. The former is to detect the basic(More)
Railway interlocking systems ensure the safe operation of trains in stations by controlling sets of devices and equipment. Component-based decentralized railway interlocking system (CBDRIS) is a recently presented railway signalling in which component-based technology is applied. For such a safety-critical real-time system, fail-safe and fault-tolerance(More)
Computerized interlocking systems have been studied for many years. Available interlocking systems mainly are centralized control systems. The great progress of distributed control technology and intelligent terminals make it possible developing distribute interlocking system. In this research, a distributed interlocking system and its control logic are put(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to compare the characteristics of patients with asthma presenting to the emergency department (ED) during the night-time with those of patients presenting at other times of the day, and to determine whether the time of ED presentation is associated with the risk of hospitalisation. DESIGN AND SETTING A multicentre chart review study(More)
Axle is a key equipment of high speed train, and affects the safety of train operation. The fault of axle is commonly detected by comparing the current axle temperature with a fixed temperature threshold. Owing to the complex mechanism of axle temperature rising, the axle temperature has a wide variation range even working in normal condition. Therefore,(More)
In the development of communication based train control (CBTC) system, while communicating with the control center, the train must be assigned accurately to the wayside network. In order to verify the rigor of this process, the specification is analyzed formally in this paper. After studying the system, the functional requirements are clarified firstly.(More)