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Influenza A virus has evolved and thrived in human populations. Since the 1918 influenza A pandemic, human H1N1 viruses had acquired additional N-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites within the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA) until the NLG-free HA head pattern of the 1918 H1N1 virus was renewed with the swine-derived 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus.(More)
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe cases of human respiratory disease. Since 2012, the victims have mainly come from the Middle East countries or sporadically from some other geographical regions seeded by the travelers who visited the Middle East. Such an introduction through travelling led to the emergence of a MERS-CoV(More)
During the 2009–2011 influenza seasons, 10.26% of the specimens isolated from patients in South Korea were subtyped as H3N2 viruses. Some oseltamivir-sensitive H3N2 samples exhibited different plaque morphologies, and were found to have novel mutations in the neuraminidase gene. In a subsequent analysis using NA mutant viruses, viral compensation against(More)
After the outbreak of the swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus in April 2009, World Health Organization declared this novel H1N1 virus as the first pandemic influenza virus (2009 pH1N1) of the 21st century. To elucidate the characteristics of 2009 pH1N1, the growth properties of A/Korea/01/09 (K/09) was analyzed in cells. Interestingly, the maximal titer of(More)
By nature of their segmented RNA genome, influenza A viruses (IAVs) have the potential to generate variants through a reassortment process. The influenza nonstructural (NS) gene is critical for a virus to counteract the antiviral responses of the host. Therefore, a newly acquired NS segment potentially determines the replication efficiency of the(More)
To address its value as a screening tool in the development of antiviral drugs, a recombinant influenza virus expressing green fluorescent protein (rPR8-GFP virus) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of viral growth by a neuraminidase inhibitor in the cells or lower respiratory tracts of mice could be visualized by the level of(More)
Influenza viruses are seasonally recurring human pathogens. Vaccines and antiviral drugs are available for influenza. However, the viruses, which often change themselves via antigenic drift and shift, demand constant efforts to update vaccine antigens every year and develop new agents with broad-spectrum antiviral efficacy. An animal model is critical for(More)
Herbal medicine has been used in the orient for thousands of years to treat large and small ailments, including microbial infections. Although there are treatments for influenza virus infection, there is no treatment for drug-resistant viruses. It is time that we explored and exploited the multi-component nature of herbal extracts as multi-drug combination(More)
Antiviral drugs are being used for therapeutic purposes against influenza illness in humans. However, antiviral-resistant variants often nullify the effectiveness of antivirals. Combined medications, as seen in the treatment of cancers and other infectious diseases, have been suggested as an option for the control of antiviral-resistant influenza viruses.(More)
The influenza virus is highly contagious in human populations around the world and results in approximately 250,000-500,000 deaths annually. Vaccines and antiviral drugs are commonly used to protect susceptible individuals. However, the antigenic mismatch of vaccines and the emergence of resistant strains against the currently available antiviral drugs have(More)