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AIM This study compares the effect of formalin and autoclaving the tooth samples by evaluating microleakage in-vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-five extracted human permanent incisor teeth were taken and randomly divided into three groups (with different methods of storage and disinfection) with 15 teeth each: Group 1: Control-extracted teeth in this(More)
Craving is considered to play an important role in the persistence of drug use and relapse of drug use. Very few studies have looked into the subjective experience of this phenomena. This study attempts to study craving comprehensively as described by the subjects. In the present study 30 patients of heroin dependence syndrome were assessed (using a(More)
Successful endodontic treatment depends upon the clinician's knowledge and ability to manage aberrant anatomy. The mandibular canine normally comprises one canal and one root but 15% may have two canals with one or two foramina and even less frequent may have two roots. This paper presents a case report of bilateral mandibular canine having two root canals(More)
AIM To systematically review the anesthetic success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) injection technique alone with that of combination of IANB and supplemental infiltration (SI) technique when used for pulpal anesthesia of mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis during endodontic treatment. SETTINGS AND DESIGN The study follows(More)
AIMS The study was aimed to acquire better understanding of C-shaped canal systems in mandibular second molar teeth through a clinical approach using sophisticated techniques such as surgical operating microscope and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 42 extracted mandibular second molar teeth with fused roots and(More)
The presence of three root canals in the distal root of the mandibular first permanent molars is rare; based on in vitro studies its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with extra canals and complex canal(More)
The Bcl2 family of proteins is capable of switching the apoptotic machinery by directly controlling the release of apoptotic factors from the mitochondrial outer membrane. They have 'pro' and 'anti'-apoptotic subgroups of proteins which antagonize each other's function; however a detailed atomistic understanding of their mechanisms based on the dynamical(More)
In the computer field there are many types of input validation attacks that occur, in which "Format String Overflow Attacks" is one of the most important. Format String Overflow Attacks remain the leading reason of software vulnerability or exploits. Format string bugs result in error such as wrong result type, memory access error and crash and security(More)