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Estimates of the effect of employment on women's risk of partner violence in cross-sectional studies are subject to potential "self-selection bias." Women's personal choice of whether to pursue employment or not may create fundamental differences between the group of women who are employed and those who are not employed that standard regression methods(More)
The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these(More)
To explore how area-level socioeconomic status and gender-related norms influence partner violence against women in Tanzania. We analysed data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and used multilevel logistic regression to estimate individual and community-level effects on women’s risk of current partner violence. Prevalence of current(More)
BACKGROUND Women's responses to partner violence are influenced by a complex constellation of factors including: psychological attachment to the partner; context of the abuse; and structural factors, all of which shape available options for women outside of the relationship. OBJECTIVE To describe women's responses to physical partner violence; and to(More)
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