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The organization of the human metallothionein (MT) gene family is more complex than the commonly used mouse and rat models. The human MTs are encoded by a family of genes consisting of 10 functional and 7 nonfunctional MT isoforms. One objective of this study was to determine if the accumulation of MT protein in cultures of human proximal tubule (HPT) cells(More)
In contrast to the single metallothionein (MT)-1 gene of the mouse, the human MT-1 gene family is composed of seven active genes and six pseudogenes. In this study, the expression of mRNA representing the seven active human MT-1 genes was determined in cultured human proximal tubule (HPT) cells under basal conditions and after exposure to the metals Cd2+,(More)
The UROtsa cell line was isolated from a primary culture of normal human urothelium through immortalization with a construct containing the SV40 large T antigen. It proliferates in serum-containing growth medium as a cell monolayer with little evidence of uroepithelial differentiation. The working hypothesis in the present study was that this cell line(More)
The stress response is one mechanism that the bladder urothelium could potentially employ to protect itself from cellular damage after exposure to arsenic and, in so doing, influence the shape of the dose-response curve at low concentrations of exposure to this environmental pollutant. In the present study, we used the cultured human urothelial cell line(More)
The goal of the present study was to determine if the expression of metallothionein isoform 3 (MT-3) might serve as a biomarker for human bladder cancer. To accomplish this goal, we defined the localization and expression of MT-3 protein and mRNA using fresh and archival biopsy specimens obtained from patients undergoing differential diagnosis for a variety(More)
This laboratory has shown that the third isoform of metallothionein (MT-3) is expressed in the human kidney in situ, including the cells of the proximal tubule. A subsequent analysis of MT-3 expression in cell cultures derived from the human proximal tubule (HPT) demonstrated that mortal HPT cells expressed MT-3, while the HPV-immortalized HK-2 cells had no(More)
The expression of hsp 27 mRNA and protein was determined in cultured human proximal tubule (HPT) cells exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cd2+ under both acute and extended conditions. Initial procedures demonstrated that HPT cells display the classic stress response following physical and chemical stress. Heat stress (42.5 degrees C for 1(More)
We determined the expression of the constitutive (hsc 70) and inducible (hsp 70) forms of heat shock protein 70 mRNA and protein in human proximal tubule (HPT) cells exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cd(+2) under both acute and extended conditions of exposure. The HPT cells exhibited the classic heat shock response when subjected to a(More)
Studies have shown, using immunohistochemical staining, that the MT-1 and MT-2 proteins (MT-1/2) are overexpressed in a substantial subset of ductal breast cancers, that overexpression occurs early in the disease process, and that this overexpression is indicative of a poor prognosis. Normal ductal breast epithelium fails to immunostain for the MT-1/2(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have shown that metallothionein 3 (MT-3) is not expressed in normal urothelium or in the UROtsa cell line, but is expressed in urothelial cancer and in tumors generated from the UROtsa cells that have been transformed by cadmium (Cd+2) or arsenite (As+3).The present study had two major goals. One, to determine if epigenetic modifications(More)