Seema Meloni

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Over a 20-year period we have observed the dynamics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-2 infection in a prospective cohort of registered female sex workers (FSW) in Dakar, Senegal. Prevalence and incidence rates for HIV-1 and HIV-2 are described from 290 seroprevalent and 193 seroincident subjects who were among the 3,910 women enrolled between 1985 and 2004. We(More)
Retroviruses have distinct preferences in integration site selection in the host cell genome during in vitro infection, with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration strongly favoring transcriptional units. Additionally, studies with HIV-1 have shown that the genomic site of proviral integration may impact viral replication, with integration(More)
BACKGROUND Most evaluations of loss to follow-up (LTFU) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment programs focus on baseline predictors, prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. As risk of LTFU is a continuous issue, the aim of this evaluation was to augment existing information with further examination of time-dependent predictors of loss.(More)
HIV-2 disease progression and transmission is attenuated compared to HIV-1, yet prospective studies examining HIV-2 intrapatient evolution have been limited. We examined viral sequence evolution in the C2V3C3 region of the viral env gene in 8 HIV-2 infected individuals from Dakar, Senegal, over the course of approximately 10 years. To compare results to(More)
A diverse array of non-subtype B HIV-1 viruses circulates in Africa and dominates the global pandemic. It is important to understand how drug resistance mutations in non-B subtypes may develop differently from the patterns described in subtype B. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease sequences from 338 patients with treatment failure to first-line ART(More)
BACKGROUND To date, antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines and programs in resource-limited settings (RLS) have focused on 1(st)- and 2(nd)-line (2 L) therapy. As programs approach a decade of implementation, policy regarding access to 3(rd)-line (3 L) ART is needed. We aimed to examine the impact of maintaining patients on failing 2 L ART on the(More)
BACKGROUND Despite sparse efficacy data, tenofovir-emtricitabine or tenofovir-lamivudine plus nevirapine is used in many resource-constrained settings. METHODS This retrospective cohort study included patients initiating nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) with either tenofovir-emtricitabine or lamivudine (tenofovir group) or(More)
OBJECTIVES The implementation of PEPFAR programs in resource-limited settings was accompanied by the need to document patient care on a scale unprecedented in environments where paper-based records were the norm. We describe the development of an electronic medical records system (EMRS) put in place at the beginning of a large HIV/AIDS care and treatment(More)
BACKGROUND While there has been a rapid global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programs over the past decade, there are limited data on long-term outcomes from large cohorts in resource-constrained settings. Our objective in this evaluation was to measure multiple outcomes during first-line antiretroviral therapy in a large treatment program in Nigeria.(More)
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane receptors that activate cells of the innate immune systems upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLR4 is an essential component of the innate immune response to various microorganisms. We investigated the impact of TLR4 polymorphism on development of opportunistic diseases in(More)
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