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Studies have shown that human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is less pathogenic than HIV-1, with a lower rate of disease progression. Similarly, plasma viral loads are lower in HIV-2 infection, suggesting that HIV-2 replication is restricted in vivo in comparison to that of HIV-1. However, to date, in vivo studies characterizing replication(More)
BACKGROUND As highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) is introduced into areas of the world in which hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic, it is important to determine the influence of HBV on persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBV coinfection who are receiving ART. METHODS We studied 1564 HIV-infected patients in Jos,(More)
Over a 20-year period we have observed the dynamics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-2 infection in a prospective cohort of registered female sex workers (FSW) in Dakar, Senegal. Prevalence and incidence rates for HIV-1 and HIV-2 are described from 290 seroprevalent and 193 seroincident subjects who were among the 3,910 women enrolled between 1985 and 2004. We(More)
Multiple HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are known to circulate in West Africa. We undertook a survey of HIVs in Oyo state, in southwestern Nigeria. We analyzed 71 samples from Ibadan, the capital city, and 33 samples from Saki, 100 miles west of Ibadan. We sequenced part of the gag gene and the envelope C2V3 region from 102 and 89(More)
OBJECTIVE Since 2010, Nigeria has adopted World Health Organization (WHO) 'Option B' which requires administration of triple antiretroviral prophylaxis or treatment (ART) to all HIVinfected pregnant women. We studied the transmission outcomes of HIV-exposed children up to 18 months of age. DESIGN This was a retrospective, observational study of(More)
BACKGROUND Viral load (VL) quantification is considered essential for determining antiretroviral treatment (ART) success in resource-rich countries. However, it is not widely available in resource-limited settings where the burden of human immunodeficiency virus infection is greatest. In the absence of VL monitoring, switches to second-line ART are based on(More)
Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate significant diversity in worldwide circulating strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Detailed studies have revealed a complex pattern of intersubtype recombinations, as well as evidence of sub-subtypes circulating in various populations. In this study, we characterized an HIV-1 strain that had previously(More)
As the use of antiretroviral therapy becomes more widespread across Africa, it is imperative to characterize baseline molecular variability and subtype-specific peculiarities of drug targets in non-subtype B HIV-1 infection. We sequenced and analyzed 35 reverse transcriptase (RT) and 43 protease (PR) sequences from 50 therapy-naive HIV-1-infected Nigerians.(More)
The global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)epidemic is characterized by significant genetic diversity in circulating viruses. We have recently characterized a group of viruses that form a distinct sub-subtype within the subtype A radiation, which we have designated HIV type 1 (HIV-1) sub-subtype A, circulating in West Africa. A prospective study of a(More)
OBJECTIVE The primary objective of this study was to estimate etravirine activity in a cohort of patients infected with non-B subtype HIV-1 and failing nevirapine-based therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Genotypic resistance testing was performed if viral load was >OR= 1,000 copies/ml after receiving at least six months of therapy. Suboptimal response to(More)