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P2X7 receptor is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated ion channel within the multiprotein inflammasome complex. Until now, little is known about regulation of P2X7 effector functions in macrophages. In this study, we show that nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase1)/CD39 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by murine peritoneal(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE ARL 67156, 6-N,N-Diethyl-D-beta-gamma-dibromomethylene adenosine triphosphate, originally named FPL 67156, is the only commercially available inhibitor of ecto-ATPases. Since the first report on this molecule, various ectonucleotidases responsible for the hydrolysis of ATP at the cell surface have been cloned and characterized. In(More)
Growing evidence supports a role for IL-1 in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), but how it impacts neuroinflammation is poorly understood. We show that susceptibility to EAE requires activation of IL-1R1 on radiation-resistant cells via IL-1β secreted by bone marrow-derived cells. Neutrophils and monocyte-derived(More)
A novel mammalian plasma membrane bound nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), named NTPDase8, has been cloned and characterized. Analysis of cDNA reveals an open reading frame of 1491 base pairs encoding a protein of 497 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass of 54650 Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.94. In a mouse,(More)
Extracellular nucleotides regulate critical liver functions via the activation of specific transmembrane receptors. The hepatic levels of extracellular nucleotides, and therefore the related downstream signaling cascades, are modulated by cell-surface enzymes called ectonucleotidases, including nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1/CD39),(More)
P2 receptors that are activated by extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, Ap(n)A) and P1 receptors activated by adenosine control a diversity of biological processes. The activation of these receptors is tightly regulated by ectoenzymes that metabolize their ligands. This review presents these enzymes as well as their roles in the regulation(More)
Disruption of the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers (BBB and BSCB, respectively) and immune cell infiltration are early pathophysiological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS), its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, their contribution to disease initiation and development remains(More)
The presence and the functionality of a glutamatergic regulation was studied at the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a singly innervated cholinergic synapse. Bath application of glutamate reduced transmitter release without affecting nerve-evoked presynaptic Ca2+ entry and handling. (1S,3R)-aminocyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (ACPD), a metabotropic(More)
The adult mammalian spinal cord has limited regenerative capacity in settings such as spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have revealed that ependymal cells lining the central canal possess latent neural stem cell potential, undergoing proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation following experimental SCI. To determine(More)
Several association studies of candidate genes for preeclampsia and essential hypertension have led to discordant results, partly because of small sample sizes. Using a large population-based sample of pregnant women, we conducted an association study of 10 polymorphisms in 9 genes and aimed (1) to validate 10 published associations with preeclampsia or(More)