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Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) resonators can detect mass with exceptional sensitivity. Previously, mass spectra from several hundred adsorption events were assembled in NEMS-based mass spectrometry using statistical analysis. Here, we report the first realization of single-molecule NEMS-based mass spectrometry in real time. As each molecule in the(More)
We demonstrate piezoelectrically actuated, electrically tunable nanomechanical resonators based on multilayers containing a 100-nm-thin aluminum nitride ͑AlN͒ layer. Efficient piezoelectric actuation of very high frequency fundamental flexural modes up to ϳ80 MHz is demonstrated at room temperature. Thermomechanical fluctuations of AlN cantilevers measured(More)
We report an actuation/detection scheme with a top-down nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) for frequency shift based sensing applications with outstanding performance. It relies on electrostatic actuation and piezoresistive nanowire gauges for in-plane motion transduction. The process fabrication is fully CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor)(More)
Current approaches to mass spectrometry (MS) require ionization of the analytes of interest. For high-mass species, the resulting charge state distribution can be complex and difficult to interpret correctly. Here, using a setup comprising both conventional time-of-flight MS (TOF-MS) and nano-electromechanical systems-based MS (NEMS-MS) in situ, we show(More)
We have developed arrays of nanomechanical systems (NEMS) by large-scale integration, comprising thousands of individual nanoresonators with densities of up to 6 million NEMS per square centimeter. The individual NEMS devices are electrically coupled using a combined series-parallel configuration that is extremely robust with respect to lithographical(More)
Frequency stability is key to the performance of nanoresonators. This stability is thought to reach a limit with the resonator's ability to resolve thermally induced vibrations. Although measurements and predictions of resonator stability usually disregard fluctuations in the mechanical frequency response, these fluctuations have recently attracted(More)
The use of a three dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM) is proposed to study concrete submitted to rock-fall impacts. The model has already been validated through quasi-static, as well as dynamic simulations (SHPB tests). The simulation of four-point beam bending tests has validated the introduction of the reinforcement in the model. With this approach(More)
— Because of its moderate cost in terms of electronics, resonant sensing has become commonplace in the context of MEMS and NEMS devices. It is usual to drive such resonators below the critical open-loop Duffing amplitude, above which the oscillations become unstable. However, when scaling sensors down to NEMS, nonlinearities may occur at very low(More)
Nano ElectroMechanical Systems are a new class of sensors that offers high sensitivity and opens new perspectives in the mass spectrometry field. This acquisition is performed in counting-mode, and the main tasks of associated information processing are to detect the molecules, to quantify their respective mass and to combine this information in order to(More)
Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) resonators can detect mass with exceptional sensitivity. Previously, mass spectra from several hundred adsorption events were assembled in NEMS-based mass spectrometry using statistical analysis. Here, we report the first realization of single-molecule NEMS-based mass spectrometry in real time. As each molecule in the(More)