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Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) are powerful tools for systems neuroscience. Here we describe red, single-wavelength GECIs, "RCaMPs," engineered from circular permutation of the thermostable red fluorescent protein mRuby. High-resolution crystal structures of mRuby, the red sensor RCaMP, and the recently published red GECI R-GECO1 give(More)
The ability to optically excite or silence specific cells using optogenetics has become a powerful tool to interrogate the nervous system. Optogenetic experiments in small organisms have mostly been performed using whole-field illumination and genetic targeting, but these strategies do not always provide adequate cellular specificity. Targeted illumination(More)
BACKGROUND Nociception generally evokes rapid withdrawal behavior in order to protect the tissue from harmful insults. Most nociceptive neurons responding to mechanical insults display highly branched dendrites, an anatomy shared by Caenorhabditis elegans FLP and PVD neurons, which mediate harsh touch responses. Although several primary molecular(More)
Local recycling of synaptic vesicles (SVs) allows neurons to sustain transmitter release. Extreme activity (e.g., during seizure) may exhaust synaptic transmission and, in vitro, induces bulk endocytosis to recover SV membrane and proteins; how this occurs in animals is unknown. Following optogenetic hyperstimulation of Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons,(More)
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) undergo a cycle of biogenesis and membrane fusion to release transmitter, followed by recycling. How exocytosis and endocytosis are coupled is intensively investigated. We describe an all-optical method for identification of neurotransmission genes that can directly distinguish SV recycling factors in C. elegans, by motoneuron(More)
The ability to optically excite or silence specific cells using optogenetics has provided a powerful tool to interrogate the nervous system. Optogenetic experiments in small organisms have mostly been performed using whole-field illumination and genetic targeting, but these strategies do not always provide adequate cellular specificity. Targeted(More)
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