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Although protein kinase C (PKC) plays a key role in ischemic preconditioning (IPC), the actual mechanism of that protection is unknown. We recently found that protection from IPC requires activation of adenosine receptors during early reperfusion. We, therefore, hypothesized that PKC might act to increase the heart's sensitivity to adenosine. IPC limited(More)
Protection from postconditioning has been documented in in situ animal models and it has been proposed that it is targeting circulating leukocytes. We therefore tested whether postconditioning can protect leukocytefree, buffer–perfused rabbit hearts. Infarct size was measured with triphenyltetrazolium staining. In control hearts undergoing 30 min of(More)
In the rabbit heart, bradykinin and ACh trigger preconditioning by a mechanism involving ATP-sensitive potassium channel-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent evidence indicates that the pathway by which bradykinin causes ROS generation includes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and protein kinase G (PKG). On the other hand, Akt was shown(More)
OBJECTIVE Ischemic postconditioning protects the reperfused heart from infarction, and this protection is dependent on the occupancy of adenosine receptors. We further explored the role of adenosine receptors in this salvage. METHODS In situ rabbit hearts underwent 30 min of regional ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion, and postconditioning was effected with(More)
We previously reported that pharmacological preconditioning of rabbit hearts with acetylcholine involves activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) through transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Transactivation is thought to be initiated by cleavage of membrane-bound pro-heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) by a(More)
We investigated whether atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) given just prior to reperfusion reduces infarction in rabbit hearts and whether protection is related to activation of protein kinase G (PKG). Isolated rabbit hearts were subjected to a 30-min period of regional ischemia; treated hearts received a 20-min infusion of ANP (0.1 μM) starting 5 min before(More)
Bradykinin (BK) mimics ischemic preconditioning by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). To identify intermediate steps that lead to ROS generation, rabbit cardiomyocytes were incubated in reduced MitoTracker Red stain, which becomes fluorescent after exposure to ROS. Fluorescence intensity in treated cells was expressed as a percentage of that in(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid receptor agonists trigger the preconditioned phenotype through sequential activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), Akt, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and opening of mitochondrial (mito) KATP channels with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although(More)
Bradykinin and acetylcholine (ACh) trigger preconditioning by ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent evidence suggests that ROS production may in turn be influenced by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). This study utilized DT-2 and DT-3 peptides, highly specific membrane-permeable blockers of PKG.(More)
Protection from a prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing enzyme (PHD) inhibitor, desferoxamine (DFO), was recently reported to be dependent on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ischemic preconditioning triggers the protected state by stimulating nitric oxide (NO) production to open mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (mitoK(ATP)) channels, generating(More)