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Prochloron spp. are obligate cyanobacterial symbionts of many didemnid family ascidians. It has been proposed that the cyclic peptides of the patellamide class found in didemnid extracts are synthesized by Prochloron spp., but studies in which host and symbiont cells are separated and chemically analyzed to identify the biosynthetic source have yielded(More)
A gene cluster for the biosynthesis of a new small cyclic peptide, dubbed trichamide, was discovered in the genome of the global, bloom-forming marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum ISM101 because of striking similarities to the previously characterized patellamide biosynthesis cluster. The tri cluster consists of a precursor peptide gene(More)
A large family of cytotoxic cyclic peptides exemplified by the patellamides has been isolated from ascidians harboring the obligate cyanobacterial symbionts Prochloron spp.. Genome sequence analysis of these symbionts has revealed that Prochloron spp. synthesize patellamides by a ribosomal pathway. To understand how this pathway evolved to produce a suite(More)
Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed(More)
Algae with secondary plastids of a red algal origin, such as ochrophytes (photosynthetic stramenopiles), are diverse and ecologically important, yet their evolutionary history remains controversial. We sequenced plastid genomes of two ochrophytes, Ochromonas sp. CCMP1393 (Chrysophyceae) and Trachydiscus minutus (Eustigmatophyceae). A shared split of the(More)
Vitamin B1 (thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP) is essential to all life but scarce in ocean surface waters. In many bacteria and a few eukaryotic groups thiamine biosynthesis genes are controlled by metabolite-sensing mRNA-based gene regulators known as riboswitches. Using available genome sequences and transcriptomes generated from ecologically important marine(More)
The bryostatins are protein kinase C modulators with unique structural features and potential anticancer and neurological activities. These complex polyketides were isolated from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina, but recent studies indicate that they are produced by the uncultured symbiotic bacterium "Candidatus Endobugula sertula" ("E. sertula"). Here(More)
"Candidatus Endobugula sertula," the uncultivated bacterial symbiont of Bugula neritina, is the proposed source of the bryostatin family of anticancer compounds. We cloned a large modular polyketide synthase (PKS) gene complex from "Candidatus Endobugula sertula" and characterized one gene, bryA, which we propose is responsible for the initial steps of(More)
The use of molecular methods is altering our understanding of the microbial biosphere and the complexity of the tree of life. Here, we report a newly discovered uncultured plastid-bearing eukaryotic lineage named the rappemonads. Phylogenies using near-complete plastid ribosomal DNA (rDNA) operons demonstrate that this group represents an evolutionarily(More)
Sponges (Porifera) represent the evolutionary oldest multicellular animals. They are provided with the basic molecules involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. We report here the isolation and characterization of a complementary DNA from the sponge Suberites domuncula coding for the sponge homeobox gene, SUBDOIRX-a. The deduced polypeptide with a(More)