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Childhood traumatic events hamper the development of the hippocampus and impair declarative memory in susceptible individuals. Persistent elevations of hippocampal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), acting through CRF receptor 1 (CRF₁), in experimental models of early-life stress have suggested a role for this endogenous stress hormone in the resulting(More)
Chronic stress is a key risk factor for a variety of diseases, including depression. There is a large degree of individual variation in the ability to recover successfully from a chronic stress exposure, but the determinants of this individual stress susceptibility are still poorly understood. We recently developed a novel mouse paradigm for chronic social(More)
Chronic stress evokes profound structural and molecular changes in the hippocampus, which may underlie spatial memory deficits. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) mediate some of the rapid effects of stress on dendritic spine morphology and modulate learning and memory, thus providing a potential molecular basis for impaired(More)
Increased vulnerability to aversive experiences is one of the main risk factors for stress-related psychiatric disorders as major depression. However, the molecular bases of vulnerability, on the one hand, and stress resilience, on the other hand, are still not understood. Increasing clinical and preclinical evidence suggests a central involvement of the(More)
The incidence of chronic stress is frequently related to the development of psychiatric disorders like depression. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a major physiological system that mediates the stress response. Tight HPA axis regulation through negative feedback mechanisms is essential for health and environmental adaptation. This feedback(More)
Major depression is one of the most prevalent stress-related psychiatric diseases. Next to environmental influences such as chronic social stress, gender is among the strongest risk factors for major depression, with women having a twice as high risk to develop the disease compared to men. While there is abundant literature on the effects of chronic social(More)
Chronic stress is increasingly considered to be a main risk factor for the development of a variety of psychiatric diseases such as depression. This is further supported by an impaired negative feedback of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been observed in the majority of depressed patients. The effects of glucocorticoids, the main(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic stress has been found to be a major risk factor for various human pathologies. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is tightly regulated via, among others, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The activity of the GR is modulated by a variety of proteins, including the co-chaperone FK506 binding protein 51(More)
Stress impairs cognition via corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), but the molecular link between abnormal CRHR1 signaling and stress-induced cognitive impairments remains unclear. We investigated whether the cell adhesion molecule nectin-3 is required for the effects of CRHR1 on cognition and structural remodeling after early-life stress(More)
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of inherited mental retardation caused by a trinucleotid repeat expansion and transcriptional shutdown of the FMR1 gene. FXS patients present a complex and often severe neuropsychiatric phenotype yet have mild somatic symptoms, normal life expectancies, and no indications of neurodegeneration. The(More)