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Root-associated fungi, with the focus on endophytic species, were isolated from healthy Arabidopsis thaliana and Microthlaspi perfoliatum plants collected at different locations in Germany. A large number of fungal taxa were discovered with a small-scale approach. This provides additional evidence that root-associated and endophytic fungi are common in(More)
Mutualistic interactions of plants with true fungi are a well-known and widespread phenomenon, which includes mycorrhiza and non-mycorrhizal endophytes like species of Epichloë. Despite the fact that these organisms intrude into plants, neither strong defence reactions nor the onset of symptoms of disease can be observed in most or even all infested plants,(More)
The downy mildew pathogen of basil (Ocimum spp.) has caused considerable damage throughout the past five years, and an end to the epidemics is not in sight. The downy mildew of coleus (Solenostemon spp.) is just emerging and here we report that it was very recently introduced into Germany. Although it has been recognised that these pathogens are a major(More)
During the past two years the integrity of Albugo candida as the only species of Albugo parasitic to Brassicaceae has been challenged. The existence of two distinct species parasitic to Brassicaceae has been confirmed, to which a third species was added. For the purpose of further exploring the diversity of the A. candida complex, eight Albugo specimens on(More)
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors can modulate the functions of immune cells, including T lymphocytes, due to increased intracellular levels of cyclic nucleotides. The drugs (aminophylline, milrinone and sildenafil) were administered once or five times at 24 h intervals at the following doses: 20 mg/kg, i.m., 1 mg/kg, i.m. and 1 mg/kg, p.o., respectively.(More)
White blister rust caused by the obligate biotroph Albugo candida (Albuginaceae; Oomycota) is one of the most notorious and common diseases of Brassicaceae. During the past 5 y, A. candida specimens collected from about 30 host genera were phylogenetically and morphologically investigated in several studies. These not only revealed that A. candida s.str.(More)
Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected(More)
The Albuginaceae, responsible for white blister rust disease on various angiosperms, are obligate biotrophic oomycetes that are only distantly related to downy mildews (Peronosporaceae). Their diversity has been much underestimated during the past decades, mainly because of the paucity of morphological characters for species delimitation, which led to the(More)
Pathogens belonging to the Oomycota, a group of heterokont, fungal-like organisms, are amongst the most notorious pathogens in agriculture. In particular, the obligate biotrophic downy mildews and the hemibiotrophic members of the genus Phytophthora are responsible for a huge variety of destructive diseases, including sudden oak death caused by P. ramorum,(More)
Oomycetes are a diverse group of eukaryotes in terrestrial, limnic and marine habitats worldwide and include several devastating plant pathogens, for example Phytophthora infestans (potato late blight). The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 gene (cox2) has been widely used for identification, taxonomy and phylogeny of various oomycete groups. However, recently(More)