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S-Nitrosylation of protein thiol groups by nitric oxide (NO) is a widely recognized protein modification. In this study we show that nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate (BF4NO), a NO+ donor, modified the thiol groups of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) by S-nitrosylation and caused enzyme inhibition. The resultant protein-S-nitrosothiol was found(More)
Previous studies have suggested that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) undergoes covalent modification of an active site thiol by a NO.-induced [32P]NAD(+)-dependent mechanism. However, the efficacy of GAPDH modification induced by various NO donors was found to be independent of spontaneous rates of NO. release. To further test the validity(More)
Detachment-induced cell death (DICD) is considered to be one of the means by which intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) die of apoptosis as they reach the lumen and are shed. Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, play a central role in initiating, amplifying, and executing apoptosis; however, the pattern of caspase activation in response to distinct(More)
Apoptotic signaling cascades converge in the activation of caspases (interleukin-1beta converting enzyme like proteases). Treatment of the human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line U937 with actinomycin D resulted in the activation of caspase-3 also known as CPP32. Protease activity was measured in cytosolic extracts by fluorometric analysis of the(More)
Nitric oxide (NO)-related activity has been associated with an NAD+-dependent modification of the glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, the mechanism by which NO effects covalent attachment of nucleotide and its role in regulation of enzyme activity are controversial. Recent studies have shown that S-nitrosylation of(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) induction through the inducible NO synthase has been demonstrated to cause cell death in macrophages. We demonstrate that, in macrophages that have been rendered resistant to apoptosis induced by inducible NO synthase (RES cells), exposure to exogenous NO donors results in a hypersensitive apoptosis reaction when compared with the parental(More)
BACKGROUND Different abnormalities of T cell effector function distinguish Crohn's disease (CD) from ulcerative colitis (UC). Because cell cycling determines effector function, pathogenic events in CD and UC may depend on cell cycle changes unique to each condition. METHODS Cell cycle kinetics, cycle regulatory molecule expression, apoptosis, caspase and(More)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is driven by niche-derived and cell-autonomous stimuli. Although many cell-autonomous disease drivers are known, niche-dependent signaling in the context of the genetic disease heterogeneity has been difficult to investigate. Here, we analyzed the role of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) in AML. BTK was frequently expressed, and its(More)
Nitric oxide signaling is achieved through both cGMP-dependent and cGMP-independent mechanisms. The latter are exemplified by protein thiol modification followed by subsequent NAD(+)-dependent automodification of the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH, or by mechanisms inducing accumulation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 and causing apoptotic cell death. Both(More)
The Neurospora crassa mutants, cyt-5-1 and cyt-5-4 have a cytochrome b- and aa3-deficient phenotype, suggesting that they result from a deficiency in a nuclear-coded component of the mitochondrial gene expression apparatus (Bertrand, H., Nargang, F. E., Colllins, R. A., and Zagozeski, C. A. (1977) Mol. Gen. Genet. 153,247-257). The complementing wild-type(More)