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What determines reciprocity in employment relations? We conducted a controlled eld experiment and tested the extent to which cash and non-monetary gifts aect workers' productivity. Our main nding is that the nature of the gift, not its monetary value, determines the prevalence of reciprocal reactions. A gift in-kind results in a signicant and substantial(More)
Members of the diverse superfamily of AAA+ proteins are molecular machines responsible for a wide range of essential cellular processes. In this review we summarise structural and functional data surrounding the nucleotide binding pocket of these versatile complexes. Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures of closely related AAA+ ATPase are overlaid and(More)
Contractual incompleteness characterizes many employment relations. High work morale is therefore fundamental for sustaining voluntary cooperation within the rm. In the presence of reciprocity motives, wages can inuence work morale. Using a natural eld experiment , we provide clear-cut evidence showing that wage cuts have a signicant and large negative(More)
The bacterial type VI secretion system is a multicomponent molecular machine directed against eukaryotic host cells and competing bacteria. An intracellular contractile tubular structure that bears functional homology with bacteriophage tails is pivotal for ejection of pathogenic effectors. Here, we present the 6 Å cryoelectron microscopy structure of the(More)
We study the role of reciprocity in a labor market field experiment. In a recent paper, Gneezy and List (2006) investigate the impact of gift exchange in this context and find that it has only a transient effect on long run outcomes. Extending their work to examine both positive and negative reciprocity, we find consonant evidence in the positive(More)
The paper reports laboratory experiments on a day-today route choice game with two routes. Subjects had to choose between a main road M and a side road S. The capacity was greater for the main road. 18 subjects participated in each session. In equilibrium the number of subjects is 12 on M and 6 on S. Two treatments with 6 sessions each were run at the(More)
Competition policy often relies on the assumption of a rational consumer, although other models may better account for people's decision behavior. In three experiments, we investigate the influence of loyalty rebates on consumers based on the alternative Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT), both theoretically and experimentally. CPT predicts that loyalty(More)
The chaperones Ump1 and Pba1-Pba2 promote efficient biogenesis of 20S proteasome core particles from its subunits via 15S intermediates containing alpha and beta subunits, except beta7. Here we elucidate the structural role of these chaperones in late steps of core particle biogenesis using biochemical, electron microscopy, cross-linking and mass(More)
Any opinions expressed here are those of the author(s) and not those of IZA. Research published in this series may include views on policy, but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn is a local and virtual international research center and a place of communication between science,(More)