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Human natural killer (NK) T cells are unique T lymphocytes that express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) Valpha24-Vbeta11 and have been implicated to play a role in various diseases. A subset of NKT cells express CD4 and hence are potential targets for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. We demonstrate that both resting and activated human(More)
NKT cells are important for initiating and regulating immune responses. We investigated the age-related changes in the CD1d-restricted semi-invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in peripheral blood of healthy adults. The iNKT cell frequency was 2.5- to 10.7-fold less in healthy elderly subjects (61 years and over) compared to the healthy young subjects (20-40 years,(More)
C57BL/6 mice genetically deficient in interleukin 15 (IL-15(-/-) mice) were generated by gene targeting. IL-15(-/-) mice displayed marked reductions in numbers of thymic and peripheral natural killer (NK) T cells, memory phenotype CD8(+) T cells, and distinct subpopulations of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). The reduction but not absence of(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) serves as a prototypic model for T cell-mediated autoimmunity. V(alpha)14 natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like protein CD1d. Here, we show that activation of V(alpha)14(More)
Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality, exists as a harmless commensal in approximately 25% of humans. Identifying the molecular machinery activated upon infection is central to understanding staphylococcal pathogenesis. We describe the heme sensor system (HssRS) that responds to heme exposure and activates(More)
Studies of mice lacking MHC class I (MHC I)-associated proteins have demonstrated a role for MHC I in neurodevelopment. A central question arising from these observations is whether neuronal recognition of MHC I has specificity for the MHC I allele product and the peptide presented. Using a well-established embryonic retina explant system, we observed that(More)
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique immunoregulatory T cell population that is positively selected by CD1d-expressing thymocytes. Previous studies have shown that NKT cells exhibit autoreactivity, which raises the question of whether they are subject to negative selection. Here, we report that the addition of agonist glycolipid(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated aminopeptidase (ERAP)1 has been implicated in the final proteolytic processing of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. To evaluate the in vivo role of ERAP1, we have generated ERAP1-deficient mice. Cell surface expression of the class Ia molecules H-2Kb and H-2Db and of the(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor growth is intimately linked with stromal interactions. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are dramatically elevated in cancer patients and tumor bearing mice. MDSCs modulate the tumor microenvironment through attenuating host immune response and increasing vascularization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In searching for molecular(More)
The commitment, differentiation, and expansion of mainstream ␣ / ␤ T cells during ontogeny depend on the highly controlled interplay of signals relayed by cytokines through their receptors on progenitor cells. The role of cytokines in the development of natural killer (NK)1 ϩ natural T cells is less clearly understood. In an approach to define the role of(More)