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A review of patients with epilepsy showed that 5.9% had seizures exclusively in sleep (ES) and 4.7% had seizures predominantly but not exclusively in sleep (PS). These groups were compared with a group (W) with seizures mainly in wakefulness. The following significant differences were obtained: 1) generalized convulsions predominated in the ES while partial(More)
—Tests are central artifacts of software systems. Therefore, understanding tests is essential for activities such as maintenance, test automation, and efficient execution. Redundancies in tests may significantly decrease their understandability. Clone detection is a technique to find similar parts in software artifacts. We suggest using this technique to(More)
Tests are central artifacts of software systems and play a crucial role for software quality. In system testing, a lot of test execution is performed manually using tests in natural language. However, those test cases are often poorly written without best practices in mind. This leads to tests which are not maintainable, hard to understand and inefficient(More)
Testing and development are increasingly performed by different organizations, often in different countries and time zones. Since their distance complicates communication, close alignment between development and testing becomes increasingly challenging. Unfortunately, poor alignment between the two threatens to decrease test effectiveness or increases(More)
Software systems contain unnecessary code. Its maintenance causes unnecessary costs. We present tool-support that employs dynamic analysis of deployed software to detect unused code as an approximation of unnecessary code, and static analysis to reveal its changes during maintenance. We present a case study on maintenance of unused code in an industrial(More)
—This paper presents an approach to verifying complex free-flight algorithms. We give an abstract model that defines properties that a concrete implementation of a (distributed) free-flight algorithm has to maintain to guarantee conflict free movement of airplanes. We develop this model gradually by defining the emergent behavior of airplanes at a very(More)
—Requirements change and so (should) do requirements artifacts, such as use cases. However, we have little knowledge about which changes requirements engineers actually perform on use cases. We do not know what is changing, at which locations use cases change and need a deeper understanding of which changes are problematic in terms of difficult or risky. To(More)
As a measure of software quality, current static code analyses reveal thousands of quality defects on systems in brown-field development in practice. Currently, there exists no way to prioritize among a large number of quality defects and developers lack a structured approach to address the load of refactoring. Consequently, although static analyses are(More)
Regression tests ensure that existing functionality is not impaired by changes to an existing software system. However, executing complete test suites often takes much time. Therefore, a subset of tests has to be found that is sufficient to validate whether the system under test is still valid after it has been changed. This test case selection is(More)