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In mammals, the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and subordinate clocks found throughout the body coordinate circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology. We characterize the clock of the adrenal, an important endocrine gland that synchronizes physiological and metabolic rhythms. Clock gene expression was detected in the outer adrenal cortex(More)
The master circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nuclei coordinates behavioral and physiological rhythms via synchronization of subordinate peripheral oscillators in the central nervous system and organs throughout the body. Among these organs, the adrenal glands hold a prime position because of their regulatory influence on numerous physiological(More)
The Leishmania parasite glycocalyx is rich in galactose-containing glycoconjugates that are synthesized by specific glycosyltransferases that use UDP-galactose as a glycosyl donor. UDP-galactose biosynthesis is thought to be predominantly a de novo process involving epimerization of the abundant nucleotide sugar UDP-glucose by the UDP-glucose 4-epimerase,(More)
The nucleotide sugar UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) is essential for the biosynthesis of several abundant glycoconjugates forming the surface glycocalyx of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Current data suggest that UDP-Gal could arise de novo by epimerization of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) or by a salvage pathway involving phosphorylation of Gal and the action(More)
Nucleotide sugars and the enzymes that are responsible for their synthesis are indispensable for the production of complex carbohydrates and, thus, for elaboration of a protective cellular coat for many organisms such as the protozoan parasite Leishmania. These activated sugars are synthesized de novo or derived from salvaged monosaccharides. In addition to(More)
Glycosylation is an important posttranslational protein modification in all eukaryotes. Besides glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and N-glycosylation, O-fucosylation has been recently reported in key sporozoite proteins of the malaria parasite. Previous analyses showed the presence of GDP-fucose (GDP-Fuc), the precursor for all fucosylation(More)
Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) is an essential component of the glycerol phosphate shuttle that transfers reduction equivalents from the cytosol into the mitochondrion. Within the testis, immunohistological analysis localized human mGPDH to late spermatids and to the midpiece of spermatozoa. The expression of human mGPDH is(More)
Sustained glucose and glutamine transport are essential for activated T lymphocytes to support ATP and macromolecule biosynthesis. We found that glutamine and glucose also fuel an indispensable dynamic regulation of intracellular protein O-GlcNAcylation at key stages of T cell development, transformation and differentiation. Glucose and glutamine are(More)
Leishmaniases are a set of tropical and sub-tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania whose severity ranges from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. Leishmania parasites synthesise a wide array of cell surface and secreted glycoconjugates that play important roles in infection. These glycoconjugates are(More)
Interconversion of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) and UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) by the UDP-Glc 4´-epimerase intimately connects the biosynthesis of these two nucleotide sugars. Their de novo biosynthesis involves transformation of glucose-6-phosphate into glucose-1-phosphate by the phosphoglucomutase and subsequent activation into UDP-Glc by the specific UDP-Glc(More)