Sebastian Bonhoeffer

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Heterotrophic organisms generally face a trade-off between rate and yield of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. This trade-off may result in an evolutionary dilemma, because cells with a higher rate but lower yield of ATP production may gain a selective advantage when competing for shared energy resources. Using an analysis of model simulations and(More)
The dynamics of HIV-1 replication in vivo are largely unknown yet they are critical to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Experimental drugs that are potent inhibitors of viral replication can be used to show that the composite lifespan of plasma virus and virus-producing cells is remarkably short (half-life approximately 2 days). Almost complete(More)
The recent development of potent antiviral drugs not only has raised hopes for effective treatment of infections with HIV or the hepatitis B virus, but also has led to important quantitative insights into viral dynamics in vivo. Interpretation of the experimental data depends upon mathematical models that describe the nonlinear interaction between virus and(More)
Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine leads to a rapid decline in plasma viremia and provides estimates for crucial kinetic constants of HBV replication. We find that in persistently infected patients, HBV particles are cleared from the plasma with a half-life of approximately 1.0 day,(More)
BACKGROUND In chronic HIV-1 infection, dynamic equilibrium exists between viral production and clearance. The half-life of free virions can be estimated by inhibiting virion production with antiretroviral agents and modelling the resulting decline in plasma HIV-1 RNA. To define HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) dynamics, we used plasma apheresis to increase(More)
The Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) is a widely employed metaphor for problems associated with the evolution of cooperative behavior. We have recently proposed an alternative approach to the PD, by exploring "spatial games" in which players--who are either pure cooperators, C, or pure defectors, D--interact with neighbors in some spatial array; in each generation,(More)
Analysis of the short-term dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection in response to drug therapy has elucidated crucial kinetic properties of viral dynamics in vivo (D. D. Ho et al., Nature 373:123-126, 1995; A. S. Perelson et al., Science 271:1582-1586, 1996; X. Wei et al., Nature 373:117-122, 1995). Here we investigated long-term(More)
The spread of bacteria resistant to antimicrobial agents calls for population-wide treatment strategies to delay or reverse the trend toward antibiotic resistance. Here we propose new criteria for the evaluation of the population-wide effects of treatment protocols for directly transmitted bacterial infections and discuss different usage patterns for single(More)
BACKGROUND Structured interruptions of antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1 infected individuals are currently being tested in clinical trials to study the effect interruptions have on the immune responses and control of virus replication. OBJECTIVE To investigate the potential risks and benefits of interrupted therapy using standard population dynamical(More)
Anti-viral drug treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections causes rapid reduction in plasma virus load. Viral decline occurs in several phases and provides information on important kinetic constants of virus replication in vivo and pharmacodynamical properties. We develop a mathematical model that takes(More)