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RATIONALE Cervical dystonia is the most common form of (primary) dystonia. The first line of treatment for cervical dystonia is intramuscular injections with botulinum toxin. To optimise the response to botulinum toxin proper muscles selection is required. Pre-treatment polymyographic EMG in addition to clinical evaluation is hypothesised to be a good tool(More)
Coagulation proteases have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of tissue remodeling and fibrosis. We therefore assessed the proinflammatory and fibroproliferative effects of coagulation protease factor (F)Xa. We show that FXa elicits a signaling response in C2C12 and NIH3T3 fibroblasts. FXa-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was dependent on(More)
RATIONALE Cervical dystonia, also called spasmodic torticollis, is the most common form of (primary) dystonia. Intramuscular injections with botulinum toxin are the first line of treatment for cervical dystonia. To optimise the treatment response to botulinum toxin correct muscles should be selected. Clinical evaluation is important for muscle selection but(More)
BACKGROUND Effective sensorimotor integration is essential to modulate (adapt) neck stabilization strategies in response to varying tasks and disturbances. This study evaluates the hypothesis that relative to healthy controls cervical dystonia patients have an impaired ability to modulate afferent feedback for neck stabilization with changes in the(More)
OBJECTIVE Botulinum toxin injections in the dystonic muscles are the preferred treatment for cervical dystonia (CD), but proper selection of the dystonic muscles remains a challenge. We investigated the use of EMG coherence and autospectral analysis as discriminative tools to identify dystonic muscles in CD patients. METHODS We compared the occurrence of(More)
BACKGROUND The preferred treatment for cervical dystonia (CD) is injection of botulinum toxin in the dystonic muscles. Unfortunately, in the absence of reliable diagnostic methods it can be difficult to discriminate dystonic muscles from healthy muscles acting in compensation. We investigated if dystonic muscle activation patterns could be identified in(More)
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