Learn More
Endocytosis functions to recycle plasma membrane components, to regulate cell-surface expression of signalling receptors and to internalize nutrients in all eukaryotic cells. Internalization of proteins, lipids and other cargo can occur by one of several pathways that have different, but often overlapping, molecular requirements. To mediate endocytosis,(More)
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). UPR activation triggers an extensive transcriptional response, which adjusts the ER protein folding capacity according to need. As such, the UPR constitutes a paradigm of an intracellular(More)
The protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR senses unfolded proteins in the ER lumen and transmits that information to the cell nucleus, where it drives a transcriptional program that is tailored to re-establish homeostasis. Using thin section electron microscopy, we found that(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are responsible for priming T-cells and for promoting their differentiation from naïve T-cells into appropriate effector cells. Because of their fundamental roles in controlling immunity, DCs and T-cells require tight regulatory mechanisms. Several studies have shown that dopamine, not only mediate interactions into the nervous system,(More)
Nonconventional splicing of the gene encoding the Hac1p transcription activator regulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This simple on/off switch contrasts with a more complex circuitry in higher eukaryotes. Here we show that a heretofore unrecognized pathway operates in yeast to regulate the transcription of HAC1. The(More)
Dimebon (dimebolin) treatment enhances cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease. Although Dimebon was originally thought to improve cognition and memory through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, the low in vitro affinity for these targets suggests that these mechanisms(More)
Latrepirdine (Dimebon) is a pro-neurogenic, antihistaminic compound that has yielded mixed results in clinical trials of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, with a dramatically positive outcome in a Russian clinical trial that was unconfirmed in a replication trial in the United States. We sought to determine whether latrepirdine (LAT)-stimulated amyloid(More)
Protein-folding occurs in several intracellular locations including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In normal conditions there is a balance between the levels of unfolded proteins and protein folding machinery. Disruption of homeostasis and an accumulation of unfolded proteins trigger stress responses, or unfolded protein responses (UPR), in(More)
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells infiltrate into the substantia nigra (SN) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in animal models of PD. SN-infiltrated CD4(+) T cells bearing inflammatory phenotypes promote microglial activation and strongly contribute to neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Importantly, altered expression of(More)
Latrepirdine (Dimebon; dimebolin) is a neuroactive compound that was associated with enhanced cognition, neuroprotection and neurogenesis in laboratory animals, and has entered phase II clinical trials for both Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease (HD). Based on recent indications that latrepirdine protects cells against cytotoxicity associated with(More)